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Full text of "Scientific American Volume 101 Number 17 (October 1909)"

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[Entered at the Post Office of New York, N. Y-, as Second Class Matter. Copyright, 1909, by Mann & Co.] 



A POPULAR ILLUSTRATED WEEKLY OF THE WORLD'S PROGRESS 



Vol. CI. No. 17.~l 
Established 1&15. j 



NEW YORK, OCTOBER 23, 1909. 



|~10 CENTS A COPY 
L $8.00 A YEAR. 




At the surface the vessel is driven by her internal-combustion engines at a speed of 14 knots. 

The "Naroahl" cruising at the surface. 




View looking forward from the bridge. Taken when the " Narwahl " was mnMnp- 14 knots at the surface. Before diving, the stanchions, handrope, removable navigating bridge, steering wheel, etc., are 

unshipped and passed below. 

THE "HABWAHX." LATEST AND LARGEST OF TEE UNITED STATES SUBMARINES.— (See Dace 296.1 



290 



Scientific American. 



October 23, 1909. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



ESTABLISHED 1845 



MUNN & CO.. Inc.. 



Editors and Proprietors 



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361 Broadway, New York. 

Frederick Converse Beach, See'v and Treat. 

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NEW YORK, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 23rd, 1909. 

The Editor is always glad to receive for examination illustrated articles 
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A TALK WITH WILBUR WRIGHT. 

"No. The next advance In the art of human flight 
will not he so much in Improving the motor as In the 
practice of high flying. Personally, I am perfectly 
satisfied with our motor; not that one, but the later 
type, which has been strengthened in the very part 
where the cylinder gave way just now." Thus Wilbur 
Wright. It was in the gathering gloom of an October 
afternoon, and we were standing alone in the shed 
which had been built on Governor's Island to house 
the Wright aeroplane during the late Hudson-Fulton 
Celebration. A few minutes earlier the machine was 
on Its launching ways, with everything primed for an 
hour-long flight, in which Wright had purposed to 
travel up the East River, over the four great bridges 
that span it, across Manhattan Island, over the Hud- 
son and the Palisades, and return to the starting 
point, with a wide detour over the Jersey Meadows 
and across the Upper Bay. We had seen Wright and 
his mechanic crank the engine by a swift turn of the 
propellers; had heard the loud explosion and crash, 
as the forward cylinder tore loose from the crank 
case; and had seen the wrecked cylinder tear its 
way through the upper plane and fall at Wright's feet. 
At the very moment when a million people were lin- 
ing both shores of the Hudson River, watching with 
absorbing interest to catch the first glimpse of the 
author and past master of the art of human flight, lo! 
here was his machine, rendered an absolute wreck, 
and the possibility, of a Hudson-Fulton flight shut out 
for good! Under such dramatic conditions of disap- 
pointment a Frenchman would have wept. Not so 
Wilbur Wright. Picking up the broken cylinder, he 
turned to the small group of which the writer formed 
one, smiled, gave an almost Imperceptible shrug of 
his shoulders, and quietly remarked, "It is all over, 
gentlemen." 

If there is any appetite for the sensational or melo- 
dramatic In Wilbur Wright, he certainly keeps it under 
masterful control. The fact that he had been opposed 
to the giving of public exhibitions of flight, and that 
this was the first and only exception that he had made, 
would, for most men, have rendered the complete 
breakdown of his machine a most aggravating dis- 
aster. Yet, five minutes later, when we were alone 
with him and his disabled air craft, he was perfectly 
composed, and showed his philosophical estimate of 
the true significance of the mishap by pointing to the 
broken cylinder and remarking: "This is merely an 
Incident. The machine is an old one that I used at 
Kitty Hawk. The metal was rather light at the point 
of fracture. The defect has been remedied in our 
later motors." 

A few months ago we expressed the opinion in 
these columns that the element which needed most 
attention in the aeroplane was the motor, and that 
until the latter had been brought up to the degree 
of reliability of the automobile motor, the art of 
flying could not make much material progress. Wilbur 
Wright, however, does not agree with us. "I have de- 
veloped my motor to the point at which it has ceased 
to give me any more anxiety than the motor of an 
automobile. I have run the later pattern of this 
motor in an endurance test (not, of course, in the air) 
for seven consecutive hours, and my machines have 
made 280 consecutive flights without experiencing 
motor trouble." 

"In what direction, then, will the development of the 



future be made?" we asked, and again the answer 
came back: "High flying; we must get up clear of 
the belt of disturbed air which results from the ir- 
regularities of the earth's surface. From now on you 
will see a great increase in the average elevation at 
which aviators will make their flights; for not only 
will they find in the higher strata more favorable 
atmospheric conditions, but in case of motor trouble, 
they will have more time and distance in which to 
recover control or make a safe glide to earth." 

Next we raised the question of suitable starting and 
stopping places, and suggested that the art of flying 
was handicapped by the present necessity for broad 
open spaces for the purpose. This brought the reply 
that since trains, trolley cars, steamboats, and sailing 
yachts are all provided with special points of de- 
parture and arrival, it was a little unfair to quote the 
necessity for such conveniences as an objection to 
the aeroplane. "But the problem of alighting, especi- 
ally during a cross-country flight, is not so serious as 
you might suppose. It will be largely solved by the 
high flying to which I referred just now, for, the 
greater the elevation, the larger the section of 
country from which the aviator can select a suitable 
alighting place. Suppose," said Wright, "in making 
a flight, say of 100 miles, I rose to a height of one 
mile, and that while at that elevation motor trouble 
necessitated an immediate descent. Commencing to 
glide down the air on a grade of one in seven, I would 
traverse seven miles of country in a straight line be- 
fore reaching the ground, that is, supposing that the 
ground were fairly level. But the glide could be made 
in any direction, and consequently I could choose a 
landing place on any one of the 150 square miles that 
would be included In a circle of 14 miles in diameter. 
The chances would be therefore decidedly in my favor 
of finding some fairly smooth field, free from obstruc- 
tion, on which I could come down safely." 

Of course, the question of speed came in for dis- 
cussion, and the reply to the question whether we 
shall see any great increase in speed in the near fu- 
ture was characteristic. "Why should we wish to 
Increase the speed? It was only a few years ago that 
the world believed the construction of a successful 
flying machine to be impossible, and yet there are not 
many birds that I cannot overtake with that machine." 
This was presenting the speed question from a new 
and very sensible standpoint; for it must be admitted 
that to have surpassed the average speed of the birds 
thus early in the game is one of the most sensational 
achievements of this, the latest and most sensational 
of man's inventions. 

THE NEW BRITISH " DSEADNOUGHTS " AND 
"1NFLEXIBLES." 

Rather complete particulars have lately been made 
public of the latest British "Dreadnoughts" and "In- 
flexlbles," which are now being built in government 
and private dockyards. Taking the "Neptune" as 
the latest representative of the "Dreadnought" type 
in the British navy, we find that the length has been 
increased by 20 feet and the beam by 4 feet, and that 
the displacement has been increased from 17,900 tons 
to 20,000 tons. The speed, 21 knots, remains the 
same, and no changes of any consequence have been 
made in the disposition of the armor for the protec- 
tion of the hull or the barbettes and turrets. 

The most important changes— those which serve 
greatly to increase the power of this ship as compared 
with the original "Dreadnought" — relate to the arma- 
ment. In the "Dreadnought," it will be remembered, 
ten 12-inch guns were mounted in the following po- 
sitions: Two on the forecastle deck; a pair on each 
beam amidships on the main deck, with the super- 
structure between them; and four in two turrets on 
the main deck astern and on the center line of the 
ship. This plan has been changed in the "Neptune" 
by placing the two wing turrets en echelon, or diag- 
onally, with sufficient distance between them In the 
fore and aft direction to permit the guns of both tur- 
rets to fire on the same broadside. Another change is 
to raise these two turrets and also turret number 4, 
one deck higher, placing them at the same elevation as 
the forward turret. The aftermost turret will be lo- 
cated, as in the "Dreadnought," on the main deck. 
By this redistribution the "Neptune" can fire six guns 
ahead, eight astern, and ten on each broadside, as 
against six ahead and astern, and eight on each 
broadside, In the original "Dreadnought." The "Nep- 
tune" will carry a new 50-caliber, wire-wound 12-inch 
gun, and not, as reported, a 13.5-inch gun. For 
torpedo attack a battery of 4.7-lnch guns will be 
mounted in a lofty central armored redoubt surround- 
ing the smokestacks, which will protect both the guns 
and the smokestack bases. 

The improved "Inflexible," known as the "Inde- 
fatigable," has 25 feet more length, 2 feet more beam, 
and 2,000 tons additional displacement than Admiral 
Seymour's flagship. The speed is the same; but the 
extra 20 feet of length will enable the midship tur- 
rets to be placed farther apart in the fore and aft 
direction than they are in the "Inflexible," with the 



result that the broadside angle of fire of what might 
be called the "off turret," that is to say, the turret 
which is on the side, of the ship remote from that on 
which an engagement is taking place, will, be greatly 
increased., 

Great Britain evidently is well pleased with her 
26-knot battleship cruisers of the "Inflexible" type, 
for she is now preparing to lay down on the ways 
vacated by the "Indefatigable" another ship of the 
same type but of far greater dimensions. She is to- 
be 600 feet in length, and equipped with turbine ma- 
chinery of even greater horse-power than that In- 
stalled In the "Lusitania" and "Mauretanla." As these 
liners exert over 70,000 horse-power when they are 
making their maximum speed of 26 knots, it can be 
understood that to secure the 28 knots required in the 
new cruiser-battleship, the horse-power must run up. 
to 80,000 or more. It is probable that the vessel, on 
her trials, like her predecessors of the "Inflexible" 
class, will exceed the requirements by about a couple 
of knots. The "Inflexible" and her sisters made 28 
knots over short distances, and it lis likely that the 
600-foot ship will be able to carry her battery of eight 
12-inch guns for a short spurt across the high seas at 
a speed of 30 knots an hour, which is higher than the 
average speed of the torpedo-boat destroyers. 

SOME PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTIONS. 

A quantity of benzaldehyde, inclosed in a sealed 
glass tube and exposed to light, is almost entirely 
converted into a red brown, transparent resin which, 
when treated with ether, leaves a small quantity of a. 
crystalline residue, fusing at 475 deg. F. and identical 
with the trimeric modification into which benzalde- 
hyde is converted by the action of iodobenzol. 

The resin deposited by the evaporation of the ether 
from the ethereal solution yields, on distillation, ben- 
zoic acid, hydrobenzoin, and unaltered benzaldehyde, 
and leaves a resinous residue which has the percentage 
composition, but four times the molecular weight of 
benzaldehyde, of which it is probably, a tetrameric 
form. It may, however, be a ketone, of the formula. 
(C 8 H„) 4 (CO) 2 (COH) 2 . 

Dibenzyliden acetone in alcoholic emulsion exposed 
to light for a year yields di-isosafrol In addition to 
the molecular weight of the ketone. 

Isosafrol mixed with a trace of Iodine and exposed 
to light for a year yields di-isosafrol in addition to a 
large proportion of resin, but safrol is unaffected by 
light. Analogous results are obtained with methyl- 
eugenol and isomethyleugenol. Propenyl compounds 
are found to be more affected by light and more 
readily converted into polymeric forms than members 
of the allyl group. The action of light on mixtures 
of benzaldehyde with safrol and isosafrol produces 
resinous substances which, when purified and analyzed, 
prove to be simple addition products. 

THE SPECTRUM OF MASS. 
A bulletin has recently been issued by the Lowell 
Observatory, in which the results of Mr. Frank W. 
Very's quantitative measurements of the intensifica- 
tion of great B in the spectrum of Mars are given. 
The general result of the • Investigation is that the 
great B in Mars is 15 per cent stronger than in the 
spectrum of the moon at the same altitude, and that 
B in the spectrum of Mars is relatively more intense 
by eight times the probable error of the result. Mr. 
Very states that while there is considerable variation, 
there are no contradictory results. In Mr. Very's 
opinion, the measurement proves, beyond a doubt, that 
it Is possible to discriminate differences of a few per 
cent in the intensities of spectral lines, although it 
would take much wider variations to attract the at- 
tention of a casual or even of a careful observer, If 
deprived of such assistance as can be given by the 
spectral band comparator. In his recent Mount Whit- 
ney studies, Prof. W. W. Campbell, of the Lick Ob- 
servatory, stated that the A band was faint in both the 
lunar and solar spectra when the bodies were low, 
fainter when the bodies were higher, and very faint 
when the bodies were at their highest; but for equal 
altitudes, the A band in the Martian and lunar spectra 
were equally Intense, plainly signifying that the ob- 
served bands were due to water vapor . in the earth's 
atmosphere above the summit of Mount Whitney. Here 
is obviously a conflict which must be settled before 
we know definitely whether or not the spectrum of 
Mars does contain water vapor. 



In the Revue de la Soudure Autogene, Bournonville 
describes a method of repairing cracked Iron pulleys 
by local heating. The crack in the rim is opened by 
means of an expansion screw acting on the two ad- 
joining spokes, so as to make a gap about 1/16 inch 
to 1/24 inch in width. Welding metal being then 
melted in the crack by means of the oxy-acetylene 
flame, the expansion screw is withdrawn quickly, while 
the metal is still red hot, and the elastic pressure of 
the rim counteracts the contraction of the joint in 
cooling. No special care is needed in cooling, and the 
metal can be tempered without risk of cracking. 



October 23, 1909. 



Scientific American 



291 



AERON AUT1CS. 
Santos Dumont has been making excellent cross- 
country flights near Paris of late with a new mono- 
plane, fitted with a 30-horse-power double-opposed-cyl- 
inder motor. The machine complete weighs only 242 
pounds. The Clement company is building a number 
of these machines, to sell for about $1,250 each. 

The second Aeronautic Show to be held in Paris 
opened in the Grand Palais on September 25th and 
lasted three weeks. This exhibition demonstrated how 
the aeronautic industry has advanced by leaps and 
bounds within the year. Some thirty different aero- 
planes and a score of aeronautic motors were shown, 
as well as one small dirigible and several plain bal- 
loons. A complete description of the show will be 
given in next week's Scientific Amebican Supplement. 

Before starting to teach Lieutenants Lahm and 
Humphries the operation of the recently acquired gov- 
ernment biplane, Wilbur Wright tried the machine 
out on October 9th and had his pupils time him for a 
distance of a kilometer in a closed circuit. This dis- 
tance, including the turn, was covered in 48 3/5 sec- 
onds, or at a speed of exactly 46 miles an hour. Allow- 
ing 100 meters extra for the turn, the speed was 50 
miles an hour. Thus it seems that the new govern- 
ment aeroplane is quite as fast as the Bleriot or Cur- 
tiss machines, which made over 47 miles an hour at 
Rheims. _ 

With the great aviation meet at Rheims as model, 
almost all the other large cities on the Continent have 
arranged for a similar event. After Brescia (Italy) 
and Berlin, Spa, Boulogne, and Dieppe in France; 
Frankfort in Germany; and Blackpool in England 
have put up large cash prizes to secure Latham, Ble- 
riot, Farman, and some of the less well-known but 
fully as daring aviators. The Frankfort authorities 
even went so far as to pay the traveling and hotel 
expenses of the "bird men." A big meet was held at 
the new Juvisy aerodrome near Paris from the 7th 
to the 21st of this month, no less than 37 machines 
being entered, of which 13 were Voisin biplanes. On 
October 10th thousands of people flocked to Juvisy. 
The train service was inadequate, and there was such 
a demonstration by the crowd that the troops had to 
be called out. 

On October 13th a course of lectures upon aviation 
to be given by Wilbur R. Kimball was inaugurated at 
the rooms of the Young Men's Christian Association, 
318 West 47th Street, New York city. Besides Mr. 
Kimball's lecture, which was illustrated with a num- 
ber of models, Mr. Hudson Maxim, the inventor of 
maximite and an authority upon explosives, spoke 
upon the dropping of explosives from aeroplanes. He 
thought the public should be rid of the fallacy that 
much harm can be done in this way. The aeroplane, 
he believes, will be used for scouting and raiding, but 
not as an instrument of destruction in itselt, ">Mt. 
Winthrop^ E. Scarritt, an ex-president of the "Autftnxo- 
bile Club of America, gave an interesting talk im .the 
future of aeronautics. 

In connection with the Centennial Celebration at St. 
Louis, Glenn Curtiss made a number of short but good 
exhibition flights. There was also a balloon* race on 
the 11th instant, in which 10 balloons competed. The 
"St. Louis III.," piloted by Louis von Phul, won, cov- 
ering 545 miles in 41% hours duration, and landing 
at Lawrence, Minn. The "Indiana," with H. H. McGill 
pilot and J. M. Schauer aide, landed near Albany, 
Minn., 500 miles distant. Mr. McGill was taken vio- 
lently ill, and his aide was finally obliged to bring 
the balloon to earth to get medical assistance. The 
"Centennial," H. R. Honeywell pilot, made a flight of 
480 miles and landed at Silas, Aia. The "Cleveland," 
J. Wade, Jr., pilot and A. H. Morgan aide, covered 
459 miles and landed near Alexander City, Ala. Bald- 
win, Knabenshue, and Beachy also made flights at the 
celebration in their dirigibles. Messrs. Post and Har- 
mon, in the "New York," won the endurance race in 
48 hours 26 minutes. 

The third international balloon race for the Bennett 
trophy started from Schlieren (near Zurich), Switzer- 
land, on Sunday, October 3rd. There were 17 starters 
representing 9 nations and divided as follows: 
America 1, Austria 1, Belgium 2, England 1, France 3, 
Germany 3, Italy 2, Spain 1, Switzerland 3. For the 
second time in four years the cup was won by an 
American, Mr. E. W. Mix, of Columbus, Ohio— our 
sole representative — having the good fortune to travel 
over 648 miles in 35 hours, and, after passing through 
a drenching rain and having some exciting ' experi- 
ences in the Bavarian Alps, to finally land in the 
trees in the forest of Gutova, some miles north of War- 
saw in Russian Poland. Mr. Mix and his aide were 
obliged to throw out their life preservers and provi- 
sions in order to keep afloat so long. After doing 
this at Breslau early Monday afternoon, they rose to 
a height of 9,000 feet, frOm which elevation they 
gradually fell until the balloon landed at 3 A. M. Oc- 
tober 5th. Second place went to Alfred Leblanc with 
a record of 631 miles. 



ELECTRICITY. 

The New York Public Service Commission reports 
that 3,327 persons were injured last August on the sur- 
face traction lines of New York city. This is 12 less 
than the record for August, 1908. The serious injuries 
for this August were 204, or 32 less than for the cor- 
responding month of last year. 

The Canadian Pacific Railroad has found the tele- 
phone so serviceable for train dispatching that the 
present system of about 500 miles of telephone lines 
will be extended to 1,000 miles within a year. The 
company states that about fifty per cent more traffic 
can be handled now than was possible under the old 
telegraph system of dispatching. 

Every once in a while we hear of wireless tele- 
graphic communication over an enormous range. Re- 
cently the army transport "Buford," while nearing 
Honolulu, succeeded in exchanging messages with the 
Pacific coast. The distance covered was 3,500 miles. 
This does not mean that there has b'een a wonderful; 
advance in wireless telegraphy, but merely that at- 
mospheric conditions Svere unusually favorable. , 

The electrification of the street railway line from 
Woolwich Arsenal to the London County Council free 
ferry has been brought to a halt owing to possible 
disturbance Of the delicate instruments at Greenwich 
Observatory. The Astronomer Royal has the power to 
stop any undertaking within, three miles of the ob- 
servatory that is liable Hr affect the instruments, and 
the railroad company must obtain his consent before 
proceeding with the electrification.' 

Manufacturers of electrical apparatus have recently 
awakened to the fact that there is quite a demand 
for a transformer which will permit of operating elec- 
tric bells, buzzers, toys, etc., with "current taken from 
line circuits in place of storage or primary batteries. 
Small direct-current battery apparatus may ordinarily 
be operated on an alternating current without any 
change in the windings or connections, provided the 
voltage is sufficiently reduced. A transformer of this 
type has recently been put on the market, which will 
reduce from 110 volts to from 3 to 26 volts. 

A very ingenious method of overcoming the friction 
of intermeshing gears has recently been devised. The 
gear teeth are electromagnetically held in engagement, 
without actually contacting. The teeth of the driving 
gear are magnetized by means of suitable coils, while 
the teeth of the driven gear serve in pairs as arma- 
tures for the magnetized teeth. Of course such an ar- 
rangement would hardly be suitable for slow, heavy 
work, because the cost of current would be greater 
than that of lubricating oil and the loss due to friction, 
but for light, high-speed work the electromagnetic en- 
gagement would undoubtedly prove very advantageous. 

Portable telephone instruments are being made by 
the Western Electric Company for use on interurban 
electric railways. The telephone instruments are car- 
ried ipn "the cars, and stations are located at various 
points along the line. • The conductor or motorman 
can: Connect -the instruments to the station by merely 
inserting a pair of line plugs, and thus can get into 
direct" ejSmjnnnicatidn at once with the dispatcher. 
In case 1 of &e}a,f on, the road, or an accident, these 
instruments are invaluable, as they enable the dis- 
patcher- to learn the particulars at first hand, and 
inake -arrangements to relieve the situation. 

An apparatus for sterilizing water has recently been 
put on the market in France, in which ozone is used 
to destroy the bacteria. The ozone is generated by 
means of electric discharges, and the gas is introduced 
into the water by means of an aspirator. The ozone 
is led into a mixing tube screwed to the water faucet, 
and the water is forced; by a umall pump through sev- 
eral compartments, so that It is divided into a number 
of fine jets. In this way an* intimate mixture of the 
gas and water is obtain*!. The device is so arranged 
that the ozone is generated only when the faucet is 
opened. 

A large electric freight locomotive is being built 
for the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, 
with which it will be possible to test thoroughly the 
advantages of handling freight trains electrically. The 
locomotive will also be used lor hauling heavy pas- 
senger trains. Following the present tendency, the 
motors are placed above the axles, thus raising the 
center of gravity and reducing the shocks and strains 
to which the roadbed and track are subjected by lo- 
comotives in which the motors are mounted on the 
axles. The locomotive is mounted on two trucks, one 
of which is pivoted on a center pin, while the other has 
a fore-and-aft movement as well as a pivotal movement, 
permitting it' to negotiate curves. Four 350-horse-power 
single-phase motors are used, which may be operated 
either with 11,000-volt alternating current or 600-volt 
direct current. A flexible connection between the 
power and the wheels is accomplished by gearing the 
motor to a quill on the axle, which is provided with 
driving arms that project between the spokes of the 
wheels. These arms are connected with coil springs, 
which serve to absorb shocks and strains of transmis- 
sion and equalize the torque on the gears 



SCIENCE. 

ThaOoob-Pearir controversy will probably be settled 
by a commission of inquiry appointed by Dr. Ira 
Remsen. The commission will examine and report 
on the Arctic records, observations, and data collected 
by both explorers. 

Boomerangs are now made of celluloid and hard 
rubber. Celluloid is better than cardboard because it 
is waterproof, light, very hard to break, and can be 
worked into the peculiar curve and twist so necessary 
to give the boomerang its peculiar properties. 

The owners of a St. Abbs fishing boat have made the 
important discovery that 'a net dyed as. nearly as pos- 
sible the hue of the sea, instead of the traditional 
brown, yields much larger results in the matter of 
fish Caught. The discovery was, says the Western 
Morning News, put to the test a short time ago, when, 
out of a fleet of sixty-five boats, the boat with its nets 
dyed blue made far and away the largest catch. The 
dye used is bluestone. The discovery has aroused 
much interest among the fishermen. 

Peat, as it comes from the bog, contains from 85 to 
95 per cent of water. According to Dr. Ekenberg, it 
appears that the peat contains a hydrocellulose which 
is of the nature of a jelly. If the peat is subjected to 
pressure the hydrocellulose passes through very much 
as soft soap might, and without separating the water 
from the peat. If, however, the peat is heated to 
about 320 deg. F., this jelly is immediately destroyed, 
and most of the water can be separated by a pressure 
of about 240 pounds per square inch. 

The steamer "Conqueror" at Leith has been char- 
tered by Dr. W. S. Bruce, Edinburgh, the leader of the 
recent Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, for the 
purpose of undertaking another expedition to the polar 
regions. The expedition, it is expected, will be ready 
to sail in a little more than a fortnight. The present 
intention is that the expedition will be away for two 
or three months. Important observations in the 
neighborhood of Spitzbergen are premeditated, Dr. 
Bruce being a recognized authority on that regioa. 

A process has recently been patented by two Italian 
gentlemen for rendering calcium cyanamide inoffens- 
ive. At present this product has several serious draw- 
backs owing principally to its causticity, and the am- 
monia and hydrocyanic ethers which it gives off. The 
process in question proposes to add sulphuric acid, di- 
luted with its weight in water, to the cyanamide; after 
introducing the cyanamide in small quantities to the 
liquid, the whole should remain slightly acid. After 
an intimate mixture, the product is dried at 40 to 50 
deg. C, and then pulverized. 

The following experiment, writes Mr. C. S. Jackson, 
in Nature, is easily tried, and throws some light 
on a certain type of illusions. A small cogwheel 
from an old American clock is the only apparatus re- 
quired. Holding the axle in the finger and thumb of 
the right hand, give it a twirling motion, say, counter- 
clockwise. Let the teeth of the wheel click gently 
against a small card, or the finger-nail of the left hand. 
On looking at the wheel the spokes appear to revolve 
counter-clockwise (as they do) and the teeth to revolve 
in the reverse direction. 

Radium appears to have a marked action on the 
development of the eggs of the Philine aperta. M. Jan 
Tuf; of Paris, made a series of over forty experiments 
with a very strong radio-active preparation, about 9 
milligrammes of radium bromide acting through a 
thin glass plate upon the eggs in different stages. In 
the first stages of development, the eggs do not seem 
to suffer from the effect of the radium, but after a 
certain period it is found that the organs will no longer 
be formed. A longer exposure causes the larvse to 
shrink up and they become only one-fifth of their nor- 
mal size. After 6 to 9 days there remains nothing 
but a shapeless mass of cells and the mass is observed 
to have a rapid rotary movement inside the shell of 
the egg. The larvse are found to die in 9 or 10 days 
after the laying of the eggs, without being able to 
leave the shell. 

The occurrence of ores of tungsten in Canada is the 
subject of a report by Dr. T. L. Walker, recently is- 
sued by the Canadian Department of Mines. After 
pointing out that the metal Is used . not only in the 
manufacture of metalli' filament electric lamps, but 
also in the production of tungsten steel and of the 
tungstates which are employed as a mordant in dyeing, 
in giving weight to silk goods, and in rendering cotton 
goods fireproof, he goes on to give particulars of the 
chief tungsten ores, their geological occurrence, and 
the methods used in treating them, as well as some 
statistics of the world's production of them, which has 
been advancing rapidly of late years. He then gives a 
detailed account of the occurrence of such ores in Can- 
ada, and finally remarks that, though no tungsten pro- 
duction has yet been credited to the Dominion, and 
that she has no well-developed and established tung- 
sten ore mines, still there are many districts where 
such ores occur. 



2Q2 



Scientific American. 



October 23, 1909. 



THE F1BST GERMAN MONOPLANE TO HAKE 
SUCCESSFUL FLIGHTS. 

Our illustrations show the monoplane of Herr Grade, 
who Is the first German to make successful flights 
in a heavier-than-air machine. This monoplane re- 
sembles that of' Santos-Dumont in its general make- 
up, the aviator being placed below the plane, v and the 
motor — a 4-cylinder air-cooled engine of the V type — 
being located at the front edge, and carrying a pro- 
peller on its crank-shaft. The wings of the monoplane 
are set at a slight dihedral angle, and are provided 
with a flexible edge at the rear. A tail with 
vertical and horizontal surfaces is mounted 
upon a bamboo pole extending out behind. 

While making an attempt to win the Lanz 
prize of |10,000 at the Mars aerodrome near 
Berlin, Herr Grade experienced a bad fall, 
fortunately without injury. The flight re- 
quired was one of 2% kilometers (1.55-mile) 
in the shape of a figure eight. The aviator 
made a splendid start, but in the middle of 
his flight, when at a height of nearly 100 
feet, the propeller broke, and the machine 
came forcibly to the ground. Fortunately; 
the shock of striking the ground was less- 
ened by the alighting of the monoplane in 
some low pine trees. The machine was 
badly damaged, but Herr Grade expected to 
repair it in a few days. 



only reached a height of 100 meters. (328 feet). Ed- 
wards, who was operating a Voisin biplane, had a bad 
tumble after completing three circuits of the course. 
He fortunately escaped with only a few slight cuts. 
Baron De Caters damaged his biplane in making a sud- 
den landing. 

On September 29th, Rougier made 31 rounds of the 
course, and covered an official distance of 77% kilo- 
meters (48.12 miles) in 1 hour and '37 minutes, a 
speed of 28.73 miles an hour. Latham covered 67% 
kilometers (41.91 miles) in 1 hour. and 14 minutes. 



« in* 



THE AVIATION MEET AT BEBLIN AND 
LATHAM'S FLIGHT AX3B0SS THE CITY. 

The aviation meeting which was held re- 
cently at Berlin was specially noteworthy for 
the great feat of Hubert Latham in flying 
across the city of Berlin from the Tempel- 
hofer field to the aerodrome at Johannisthal. 
This flight was made on September 27th, the 
second day of the meeting, and it has already been 
mentioned in these columns. ■ Our photograph shows 
the machine as it flew across the, sheds which were 
erected for the aeroplanes at Johannisthal. The great 
height at which Latham flew is indicated by the small 
size of the monoplane, which looks like a huge bird 
of prey winging its way in the upper air. Latham 
made the flight of 6% miles across the city in less than 
10 minutes. He first made two circuits of the Tempel- 
hofer field, and then started straight oft across the 
city at a height of about 300 feet. As soon as word 
was received by the waiting spectators at Johannisthal 
that Latham had started, they all strained their eyes 
in an effort to see the machine in the distance. Soon 
It appeared, a mere 
speck in the sky. It 
came rapidly nearer, 
and finally passed 
overhead, as shown 
in our illustration. 
Before coming to 
earth, Latham com- 
pleted two circuits 
of the aerodrome, a 
distance of about 
12% miles. Upon 
alighting, he re- 
ceived a decided ova- 
tion. The total 
length of his flight 
was about 24 min- 
utes. 

The opening day 
of the meeting, Sun- 
day, September 26th, 
was not very auspi- 
cious. Baron De Ca- 
ters made several 
circuits of the 2,%,- 
kilometer (1.55 
mile) course, and 
Bleriot did likewise. 
Neither aviator kept 
aloft long enough, 
however, to qualify 
for the speed prize. 
Leblanc started on 
his Bleriot mono- 
plane, but only suc- 
ceeded in making a 
half round of the 
course. 

On September 
27th very little was accomplished, but the following 
day several excellent attempts were made to win 
prizes, the best of these being that of Rougier, who 
flew 44.75 kilometers (27.78 miles) in 52 minutes. 
Latham and.Farman both attempted 'to win the speed 
prize. The former covered the required distance of 
20 kilometers (12.42 miles) in 18 minutes 4 3/5 sec- 
onds, and the latter in 20 tninutes 9 2/5 seconds. M. 
Bleriot did not quite succeed in completing the 20 kilo- 
meters. Rougier, in his long flight, attempted to win 
the height prize presented by Count Zeppelin, but he 




This is the first German aeroplane to make satisfactory short flights. 

THE GRADE MONOPLANE IN FLIGHT 

His average of 41.22 miles an hour in the 20-kilometer 
speed test caused him to be declared the winner of 
the speed prize of $2,000. On October 1st Rougier won 
the distance prize of $10,000 for 2-hour 41-minute 50- 
second flight, in which he covered 80% miles at an 
average speed of 30 miles an hour. 

M. Bleriot's monoplane was attached by the manage- 
ment when the champion aviator attempted to leave 
with it for Cologne. He had been paid $5,000 to fly 
at Berlin on five days, and hecause he refused to stay, 
his machine was retained. M. Leblanc also stopped 
when Bleriot quit. On the whole, this meeting was 
fairly successful, especially in view of the fact that it 
was run during the time of the aeronautic show at 




' 



V f 1 




Front view of Latham's monoplane, showing damage 
sustained in alighting. 



Bfe 



The arrival of Hubert Latham at Johannisthal after his flight across Berlin. 

In this Instance for the first time an aviator arrived at an aviation meeting on his machine, after taking a direct air Una 
THE AVIATION MEET AT BEBLIN AND LATHAM'S FLIGHT ACB08S THE CITY. 

Paris, which opened on September 25th. Latham 
struck the- ground forcibly in one of his landings, 
breaking a wheel and damaging his propeller as shown 
In one of our photographs. 

« m> 

Holland- compound is a solution of 5 parts of soda 
water glass and 1 part Of carbonate of soda, or a 
powder mixture consisting of 3 parts of calcined soda 
and 1 part of dry potash water glass. Ten parts of 
this mixture is said to be sufficient to render 100,000 
parts of hard water soft. 



Suicide of Scorpions. 

The venoms of serpents, fishes, scorpions, centipedes, 
spiders, bees, etc., as well as the blood of the eel, owe 
their virulence .to the presence of toxins similar to 
those which are secreted by bacteria. In both cases 
the toxins are specific products of the activity of liv- 
ing cells. They are very poisonousT" non-crystallizable 
colloids, of unknown chemical constitution. The 
venom toxins are very sensitive to the action of heat 
and light, are easily destroyed by digestive ferments, 
and consequently are innocuous c when swallowed. 
There is a great variety of these toxins. 
Snake poison alone contains half a dozen 
distinct toxins, each of which exerts a spe- 
cific action on the nervous system, the red 
or the white blood corpuscles, etc. 

It is possible to produce in any animal 
-an artificial condition of immunity to the 
effects of any animal venom. This is accom- 
" plished by the repeated injection of the 
venom in doses, each of which is too small 
to cause death. After a larger or smaller 
number of injections the animal acquires 
the power to resist the action of many 
times the quantity of venom that would 
suffice to cause death, if it were injected 
into the veins of a non-immunized animal. 
The blood of the infmunized animal now 
contains a new substance, an antitoxin 
which has the property of neutralizing the 
toxin of the venom, and this blood (or 
rather its watery part, or serum) may be 
employed to combat the toxic action of the 
venom in a non-immunized animal. 

The ichneumon, the hedgehog, and some 
other animals which devour venomous ser- 
pents, exhibit an extraordinary resistance to 
the effect of their bites. This natural im- 
munity is explained by the* presence of antitoxins in 
the blood of these animals. Serpents are also little 
affected by their own venom. In general, it is almost 
impossible to kill a venomous animal by inoculating 
it with the venom of its own species, of which it can 
support very large doses with impunity. 

These facts demonstrate the absurdity of the stories 
of rattlesnakes and scorpions committing suicide by 
means of their own venom. . It is asserted that a scor- 
pion or a rattlesnake imprisoned in a circle of red-hot 
coals will sting or bite itself to death. This is a phy- 
siological impossibility. — Cosmos. 

. » I » * ♦ : 

Common iron scrap has now so low a commercial 

value that it is 
hardly worth the 
trouble of selling, 
unless it has accu- 
mulated in large 
quantities. But there 
is a difference in 
scrap, as the follow- 
ing story proves. A 
French ship recently 
sailed from Oakland, 
Cal., for Genoa, with 
a cargo of iron scrap 
collected from the 
ruins of San Fran- 
cisco, after the 
earthquake and con- 
flagration of 1906. 
The scrap is con- 
Signed fb the Italian 
government and is 
to be used in the 
construction of a 
warship of the 
"Dreadnought" type. 
It appears that a 
small lot of similar 
material, which was 
brought to Genoa 
two years ago and 
mixed with steel, 
produced armor 
plates of unusual 
strength. In conse- 
quence of this result, 
which was due to 
the intense heating 
which the scrap had 
experienced in the 
conflagration,. the Italian naval engineers advised the 
government to purchase all the scrap iron from the 
SaU Francisco fire that could be obtained. 




*» 



HI f-ilpw| 



The United States Treasury Department will soon 
take up the subject of providing sanitary paper money. 
Not the least of the reforms proposed is the propo- 
sition to wash national bank notes. It is said that the 
idea of washing bank notes is by no means infeasible, 
for it 'is possible by means of a chemical solution or 
bath to clean the notes without injuring the printing. 



October 23, 1909. 



Scientific American 



293 




A SIMPLIFIED METHOD 07 TEACHING EXPEBIMENTAL 
FHTSICS. 

BT JACQUES BOTEB. 

Until recently, experimental physics has heen taught 
by rather superannuated methods in the lyc6e$ and 
colleges of Prance. The teachers lacked simple ap- 
paratus suitable for the initiation of their pupils into 

the mysteries of 

acoustics, optics, 
electricity and 
magnetism; al- 
though some of 
the schools pos- 
s e s s e d magnifi- 
cent instruments, 
copies of those of 
half a century 
ago, which, in 
the language of 
M. Chassagny, the 
inventor of the 
apparatus de- 
scribed, below, 
"were a joy to 
their makers" 
but of little, use 
to their possess- 
ors. There were 
costly Hiero's 
f o u n t a ins and 
Morin's machines 
which were used 
only once a year. 
The pumps and 
hydraulic presses 
were equally ex- 
pensive and they 
gave the pupils a 
totally false con- 
ception of the 
pumps and hy- 
draulic presses 
employed for 
practical pur- 
poses. Babinet's 
improved pneu- 
matic apparatus 
i s remarkable 
chiefly for its 
great display of 
polished copper. 
The Gay-Lussac 
e u diomet ers, 
Ramsden electric 
machines, c o n- 
densers of Aepi- 
nus, Watts's ma- 
chines and many 
others have now 
only historical in- 



in explaining the laws of the compound pendulum and 
the graphical method of recording movements in gen- 
eral. A bicycle wheel is mounted with its axle hori- 
zontal in a flat wooden frame. The rim of the wheel 
carries a wide band of sheet brass, forming a sort of 
drum, which can be covered with a band of smoked 
paper, and one end of the axle bears a small grooved 




Fig. 1.— The mechanical recorder. 




Fig. 2.— Apparatus for combining vibrations in the same plane. 



performed, illustrating the static equilibrium of mo- 
ments, inertia^ the action of constant forces, the law 
of velocities, proportionality of force to acceleration, 
resistance of the air, friction, isochronism of small 
oscillations, the graphic method of registering move- 
ments, etc. 

In demonstrating the principle of inertia the needle 

is brought into 
contact with the 
band of smoked 
paper carried by 
the drum, and 
the- drum is 
turned. The 
pendulum being 
in the position 
o f equilibrium, 
the needle traces 
a line which, 
when the paper 
is removed and 
laid flat, will be 
straight and will 
constitute a base 
line. This line 
having been trac- 
ed, the pendulum 
is drawn to one 
side, a rotary im- 
pulse is given to 
the drum with 
the hand, the 
pendulum is re- 
leased by moving 
the lever which 
holds it, and the 
needle traces an 
undulating line. 
The distances be- 
t w e e n consecu- 
tive intersections 
of this line with 
the base line rep- 
resent equal in- 
tervals of time, 
corresponding to 
equal vibrations 
of the Isochro- 
nous pendulum, 
and as these dis- 
tances are also 
found to be sen- 
sibly equal in 
length, the ex- 
periment .proves 
that the drum, 
set in motion by 
a momentary im- 
pulse, continues 
to rotate with 



Fig. 6.— Chassagny's apparatus for electromagnetic 
induction. 



terest. For several years French teachers of physics 
have been trying to modernize their cabinets of appar- 
atus and to modify their instruments in order to sim- 
plify experimental observations. Prominent among 
these progressive teachers is M. Chassagny, inspector 
of the. Academy of Paris, who has invented « number 
of efficient instruments of neat and~substantial, though 
Inexpensive, construction, with each of which various 
instructive experiments can be performed. 

The cpmplicated machines of Atwood and Morin for 
the study of the laws of falling bodies are replaced by 
the mechanical recorder ( Fig. 1 ) , which is useful also 



driving pulley. The center of gravity can be brought 
accurately to the axis of rotation by means of sliding 
weights attached to two of the spokes. At one side 
of the drum a short pendulum, formed of a heavy cast- 
iron cylinder, is mounted on an axis perpendicular to 
that of the drum, on the blackened surface of which a 
record is traced by a flexible needle attached to the 
pendulum. The drum and the : pendulum can be sto. 
ped, together or separately, by means of an adjustable 
lever, and the driver is also provided with an emer- 
gency brake. 
With this apparatus some fifteen experiments can be 



practically uniform velocity (the effect of friction be- 
ing negligible). 

In studying the action of a constant force, the base 
line is traced as before. A cord is then wound round 
the drum and a weight of about one-quarter pound is 
attached to its free end, as shown in Fig. 1. The zero 
point is marked by allowing the pendulum with its 
needle to swing across the base line while the drum 
is held at rest. The pendulum is then drawn aside 
and, by a proper adjustment and manipulation of the 
lever, the pendulum and the drum are released simul- 
(Continued on page 30%-) 




Fig. *.— Uuassagny's electroscope 



Fig. 3. — Apparatus for combining vibrations in mutually perpendicular planes. 
A SIMPLIFIED METHOD OF TEACHING EXPEBIMENTAL FHTSICS. 



Fig. 5.— Chassagny's galvanometer. 



294 

A N en Process for Developing Photograph* In 
Daylight. 

If an ordinary dry plate, after It has been exposed 
In the camera, is placed in a bath of potassium iodide, 
the silver bromide is converted into the non-sensitive 
iodide, and the latter can then be developed in day- 
light with a suitable developer. It is recommended to 
carry out the process as follows: 

The plate Is laid for two minutes in an actinal 
solution (I. e., four per cent potassium iodide). This 
can be done in a suitable cloth bag. After this the de- 
velopment may be carried out in subdued daylight 
using equal parts of the solutions A and B. 
A. 

Water 600 grammes. 

Anhydrous sodium sulphite. . . 20 grammes. 

Metol 1 gramme. 

Hydroquinone 8 grammes. 

Potassium bromide 40 grammes. 

B. A three per cent caustic potash solution. 
The plate should of course be rinsed before develop- 
ing. The latter operation takes about five minutes. 
The fixing is carried out as usual, except that it takes 
a little longer. The exposure should be ample. The 
potassium iodide solution may be used over and over, 
but the developer "should be mixed fresh for every 
plate. — Chemiker Zeitung. 



Limitation of the Speed, of Automobiles. 

In England a recent municipal police ordinance re- 
quires high-power automobiles to carry apparatus 
which will give warning when the city speed limit is 
exceeded, or will automatically diminish the speed in 
such cases. An' apparatus of the first class, which is 
much used; consists of an air-compressing cylinder pro- 
longed at the bottom by a smaller cylinder containing 
a piston which has two peripheral vents and is forced 
forward by a spring. 

The piston of the air-compressing cylinder is con- 
nected with the driving mechanism, and its velocity is 
proportional to the speed of the vehicle. So long as 
this speed is below the prescribed limit, the pressure 
of the air, which continually escapes through one of 
the vents of the small piston, remains too low to move 
this piston and compress the spring. When the legal 
speed limit is exceeded, however, the pressure rises, 
and the small piston is forced back until the second 
vent comes opposite a whistling yent in the wall of 
the small cylinder, so that the whistle is sounded by 
the escaping air. 

An apparatus of the second class comprises an oil 
pump, the pipe of which is provided with a three-way 
cock. This cock is controlled by a centrifugal regu- 
lator, and its third channel communicates with a cylin- 
der containing a piston which controls the accelerator, 
the brake, and the transmission. When the speed ex- 
ceeds the normal limit, this third channel is opened 
by the action of the centrifugal regulator, and the oil 
is forced into the cylinder where, by its pressure on 
the piston which operates the brake, etc., it reduces 
the speed of the vehicle to the normal limit. This 
limit is indicated on a dial, and it can be varied by 
adjusting the spring of the centrifugal regulator by 
means of a key. 



The Current Supplement. 

In the industrial development which the last one 
hundred years has witnessed, it may well be claimed 
that the industry of iron and steel stands among the 
foremost. Mr. F. W. Harbord in an interesting arti- 
cle in the current Supplement, No. 1764, considers 
the various causes which have assisted in these vast 
developments; how on the one hand the engineer and 
chemist have made this progress possible, And how on 
the other hand the metallurgist, responding to the call 
of the varied modern requirements, has supplied the 
materials without which modern engineering develop- 
ments would have been impossible. Dr. Alfred Gra- 
denwitz tells how standard clocks are operated by wire- 
less in the city of Vienna. The exhaustive review of 
recent improvements in the internal-combustion engine 
which has formed a feature of the last two numbers of 
the Supplement is concluded. Mr. Fred W. Lane 
shows how a practical telephone may be employed 
C. van Langendouck writes on the wonderful armored 
concrete viaduct of the Rotterdam and Scheveningen 
line. "The Seven Styles of Crystal Architecture" is 
the title of a paper which was read by Dr. A. E. H. 
Tutton before the Winnipeg meeting of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science. That 
paper is published in the current Supplement. Emile 
Gadeceau contributes a popular article on marine 
plankton. Under the title "The Red God of the Sky," 
a popular article on Mars and theories of Martian 
habitability is presented. 



Scientific American 

SATUKN AND HIS KINGS. 

BT FBOF. PBKDEBIO It HONET, TBDnT? OOUJDSa. 

The study of Saturn and his rings is one of the most 
fascinating in astronomy. The enormous bulk of the 
planet (second only to Jupiter in diameter) ; its low 
density (less than that of any other planet) ; the great 
difference between the polar and equatorial diameter; 
and the rapidity of its axial rotation, alone make Sat- 
urn an object of peculiar interest. But the conspicu- 
ous features of the Saturnian system, viz., the vast 



October 23, 1909. 




Fig. 1.— SATSBN'S KINGS IN 1907. 

rings and the brilliant retinue of ten satellites, which 
distinguish the planet from the other members of the 
solar system, constitute the problems of chief interest 
in the study mentioned. 

Among the many advances in astronomical discov- 
ery is included a more accurate knowledge of Saturn's 
rings, the plane of which coincides with that of the 
planet's equator. It has been clearly proved that the 
theory of a rigid ring is untenable, and this view has 
long since yielded to the more scientific conclusion 
which maintains that the rings are in a mobile state, 
and that they are probably composed of swarms of 




Tig. 8.— SATURN'S KINGS IN 1009. 

meteors or satellites too small to be distinguished in 
the telescope.. These hodies, obedient to the laws 
which govern the motions of satellites around their 
primary, would arrange themselves in the order as it 
now exists. The complexity of the problem is appar- 
ent. Since the thickness of the rings is not more 
than a hundred miles, and the diameter of the outer 
ring about one hundred and seventy thousand miles, 
the 'dimensions of these bodies must be very small, and 
their number extending over such a vast area well 
nigh incalculable. The installation at the present time 
of larger reflectors in our observatories augurs well 
for the value of observational work; and it is to be ex- 




Himly gunpowder contains 45 per cent chlorate of 
potash, 35 per cent of saltpeter, and 20 per cent of 
coal tar. In making it up, the tar is dissolved in ben- 
zine, the solution mixed with the salts and the benzine 
then evaporated. 



Fig. 3 RELATIVE POSITIONS OF SATURN AND TEE 

\ '• ■ E4RTH. 

pected that in the future a more accurate knowledge 
of the constitution of the rings of Saturn will be ob- 
tained. 

Saturn is now in that quarter of his orbit which in- 
cludes perihelion. At an opposition which is near 
perihelion the planet approaches nearly one hundred 
million miles nearer the earth than at an aphelion 
opposition. As a consequence the apparent diameter 
of the planet and of the rings will increase at each 
opposition until perihelion is. reached. 

The plane of Saturn's orbit is inclined at an angle of 



nearly 2% degrees to the plane of the ecliptic. In 
the diagram the full line represents that part of the 
orbit which is above the ecliptic; the dotted line the 
part below. The intersection of the plane of the orbit 
with that of the ecliptic is NN', and these points are 
respectively, the ascending and descending nodes. A P 
is the axis of the orbit whose center c is nearly fifty 
million miles from the sun. The revolution of the 
planet at a mean distance of 886 million miles from 
the sun is accomplished in nearly 29% years; opposi- 
tions occurring at average intervals of 378 days. The 
positions of Saturn at successive oppositions are shown 
from 1891 to 1911. The plane of the rings is inclined 
at an angle of 28 degrees to that of the ecliptic, and 
the plane traverses the earth's orbit twice during each 
revolution in opposite directions in a little less than a 
year (= 360 days). When it passes through the sun 
it is pierced by the planet's orbit at o and d, the posi- 
tions of Saturn .at opposite points in the orbit, which 
are reached .at intervals of about fifteen years. When 
the planet is at either of these positions an edge view 
of the rings is presented to the sun. The extreme 
points of contact of the plane of the rings with the 
orbit are 6 and e; and when Saturn is at either of 
these positions the rings are seen to the best advan- 
tage, 1. e., they open to their greatest apparent width. 
The minor axis of the ellipse representing each ring 
is nearly one-half the length of the major axis. 

At the date of the opposition of 1899 the planet was 
near 6, and a satisfactory view of the northern hemi- 
sphere of Saturn and of the upper surfaces of the rings 
was obtained. At the opposition near e the southern 
hemisphere and the under or southern surfaces of the 
rings will be visible. Also the planet will, be nearer 
the earth, and the apparent dimensions increased about 
one-eighth. Saturn will be in the northern heavens 
and therefore seen to good advantage in high lati- 
tudes. The plane of the rings traversed the earth's 
orbit in 1891-2. Fifteen years later, in 1907, this plane 
again crossed the earth's orbit, and an edge view was 
obtained. Fig. 1 shows Saturn and his rings in this 
position, making apparent the difference between the 
polar and equatorial diameters. The thickness of the 
rings is estimated between fifty and one hundred 
miles. But this measurement is so small in compari- 
son with the diameter of the ring that it is impossible 
to represent it in correct proportion by the- scale of 
the figure. The fine white -line may therefore be ac- 
cepted as a representation of the rings for a short 
period of time just before and after the edge view 
was presented, when they entirely disappeared, and 
the planet alone remained visible. The positions of 
Saturn and the earth are shown at the date of opposi- 
tion in 1909. It is scarcely necessary to say. that 
while the planets are correctly proportioned in the 
plot, their dimensions are enormously exaggerated in 
order to compare their magnitudes. If they were 
drawn to the scale of the orbits they would shrink to 
mere points. Saturn's axis moves parallel to itself. 
To an observer on Saturn (if life were possible on the 
planet) the heavens would appear to move in the same 
general direction as they appear to us, but around an- 
other pole, and in less than half the time, as Saturn's 
rotation on his axis is accomplished in about ten hours 
and a quarter. 

Two years have passed since the edge view was 
presented to the earth. The rings are gradually widen- 
ing, and their under surface becoming visible. Fig. 2 
shows saturn and his rings as seen in a telescope at 
the date of opposition this year. As the telescope gives 
an inverted image, in order to obtain a correct view 
Fig. 2 should be inverted. The larger area of the 
planet in the drawing represents the southern hemi- 
sphere which Is turned toward the earth. The figure 
shows the division between the outer and inner rings, 
and between the "crape" ring and the planet. At each 
successive opposition the rings will widen and the 
markings on their southern surfaces will be more eas- 
ily distinguished. 

The present time offers an excellent opportunity 
for a telescopic study of Saturn and Mars. Both plan- 
ets are evening stars, and both are near opposition. 
They are slowly approaching each other and Will be 
in conjunction on December. 31st. 

« in » 

Various salts added in small quantities to the water 
used in mixing Portland cement appreciably acceler- 
ate or retard the setting of the mixture. The setting 
is retarded by water containing 4 per cent or more of 
sodium chloride, and by weak solutions of calcium 
chloride, but the latter salt in concentration higher 
than 9 per cent acts as an accelerator. Aluminium 
chloride accelerates, while iron chloride, niost soluble 
sulphates, and even plaster of Paris retard setting. 
Aluminium sulphate is an accelerator, and in the 
compound alums its effect preponderates over that of 
the retarding alkaline sulphates and produces a slight 
acceleration. The alkaline carbonates accelerate in 
weak solutions, but soda acts as a retarder when its 
concentration exceeds 10 per cent. Borax, boric acid, 
phosphates, chromates, and chromic acid In any con- 
centration retard the setting. 



October 23, 1909. 



<&&vxs*V0%xilznc&+ 



AH ODD PADDLE-WHEEL BOAT. 

To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

Among the odd boats in your recent issues, I failed 
to note a duplicate of one I saw' in Canadian waters. 
It was a small excursion boat, sidewheeler, propelled 
by power furnished by a team of horses working on a 
treadmill. The speed was not great, but the boat 
surely moved, and furnished amusement for a goodly 
party which it happened to have the day I saw it. A 
band was playing and people shouting as we sped by 
on a steamer. J. Doux. 

Utica, N. Y. 

THE HEIGHT OF MOUNT BAINIEB. 

To the Editor of the Scientific American : 

Reading to-day in a recent issue of the SdEimFic 
American, I saw this statement in reference to Mount 
Whitney: "This peak is the highest in the United 
States." Height given, 14,501 feet. 

1 was with Prof. McClure in 1897 when he ascended 
Mount Rainier, and helped him to carry instruments 
for use in determining the height. Although he was 
killed in the descent, his notes were complete, and the 
subsequent calculations made from them by his friends 
gave the height as 14,528 feet above sea level. I be- 
lieve these figures have been accepted as the true 
height. Habvey F. Mitchell. 

New York city. 

m i » i m 

THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN AT JERICHO. 
To the Editor of the Scientific American : 

I inclose you a portion of your issue of February 
7th, 1885, which was given me by a friend of. mine, 
Dr. Herman Bryan, a returning medical missionary 
from the island of Hainan. Dr. Bryan took a trip 
through the Holy Land, and found in the reading room 
of Cook's Hotel at Jericho, on April 10th of last year, 
a copy of this issue, which was the sole American 
reading matter provided by the hotel management. 
Dr. Bryan has returned. to China now, but he asked 
me to mention this to you, and suggest that the Scien- 
tific American might well be represented by a more 
recent copy. Alex. L. Pugh. 

New York city. 



WHY NOT A MONUMENT TO PITCH? 
To the Editor' of the Scientific American: 

It gave all members of my family great pleasure to 
read the Scientific American editorial of October 
9th. It strikes the keynote of the situation in regard 
to our unequal distribution of acknowledgment to 
steamboat inventors. My father (James Arthur) pro- 
nounces it the best column that has appeared to date. 

We of course all realize that it is impossible to do 
honor to all the early inventors, but we should at 
least do justice to the United States of America by 
placing its steamboat successes in the right century, 
We have just been celebrating the fact that the United 
States had a steamboat in the nineteenth century while 
as a matter of fact we had several successful ones in 
the eighteenth century, and the one referred to in your 
editorial attained a speed which was not exceeded until 
the following century was several years old. 

We all hope that your timely remarks will bear fruit 
and that a bronze tablet will be placed near Collect 
Pond, and that the grave of John Fitch may at least 
be properly marked. Daniel Arthur. 

New York, N. Y. 



"INFLEXIBLE » AND "CONNECTICUT » COMPABED. 
To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

Pardon me for the presumption of criticising any- 
thing 1 in your very valuable paper, but an article in 
the issue of October 9th, dealing with the visiting 
warships anchored in the Hudson River, I think is 
misleading in one particular. In comparing the broad- 
side fire of the three battleships representing France, 
England, and the United States, the statement is made 
that the "Inflexible" has eight 12-inch guns which can 
be fired on one broadside. But, if I am not mistaken, 
the "Inflexible," like all her sister "Dreadnoughts" of 
the English navy, is unable to fire all her 12-inch guns 
oh both- broadsides, on account of the position of the 
two wing turrets. If this is true, then the "Inflexi- 
ble's" superiority would be mainly in. her great speed. 
I believe that the "Connecticut" with her rapid-fire 
8-inch and 7-inch guns, coupled with her four 12-lnch 
guns, would more than hold her own with an 'Inflexi- 
ble." Although the SJnch and 7-inch guns, theoreti- 
cally, will not penetrate the "InflexlbleV* amidship 
armor belt, still the rain of shells from these lighter 
guns would play havoc, with every part of the vessel 
above the low 7-lnch armor belt of the English cruiser. 
This would not affect the crews In the 12-inch turrets, 
but when the ship is riddled fore and aft, with all the 
upper works, containing all the range-finding appara- 
tus, carried away, it would tend to demoralize the en- 
tire personnel. The article also mentions that the 
"Inflexible" could close in to a range of 6,000 yards 



Scientific American 

and quickly overcome the "Connecticut," by the mere 
concentration of her 12-inch guns. Now, I think it 
would be extremely unhealthy for the "Inflexible" at 
this range, as the terrible broadside of the "Connec- 
ticut's four 12-inch, four 8-inch, and six 7-inch guns 
would completely overwhelm the . six 12-inqh of the 
former. Even admitting that the 7-inch _guns of the 
"Connecticut" are protected with comparatively light 
armor, still the tremendous rate of fire of that battery, 
in addition to the four 8-inch and four 12-inch, would 
so blind the gunners on the enemy, that they would 
be unable to properly handle their guns. Even up to 
9,000 yards, the 8-inch and 7-inch guns would be very 
effective in carrying away the upper works of an 
enemy, thus destroying his ability to handle his ship. 
So I would like to see our "Connecticut" placed in a 
more favorable light in a comparison with the "In- 
flexible." . . \j Emerson B. Manley, 

U. S; S. "Kansas." Machinist's Mate. 

[We mentioned in the article referred to that the 
secondary battery of the "Connecticut" would riddle 
the unprotected parts of the "Inflexible." The mid- 
ship pairs of 12-inch guns on this ship are placed di- 
agonally, and therefore all four guns can be fired on 
either broadside, through a limited angle. — Ed.] 

* «nu 

BESULT OF A LIGHTNING STBOKE. 
To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

The accompanying photograph was taken recently at 
Velva, N. D. Three young men were putting up hay, 
when a thunderstorm came up, and all three were 
knocked down, the lightning killing a team of horses, 
and^ rendering the two men who were holding them 
unconscious for some hours. The third man saw the 
others fall, and then lost consciousness himself. His 




BESULT OF A LIGHTNING STBOKE. 

team, standing a couple of rods away from the other, 
was knocked down, and a hole was torn in his cheek, 
whether fromJh e faU or from the lightning it might 
be impossible to say. He came to, mounted a horse, 
after pulling one of his companions from under one 
of the dead animals, and rode for help. Securing that, 
he returned, and then fainted, partly from loss of 
blood, and remained unconscious several hours. The 
other two men regained consciousness that night, and 
all three were practically over the effects of the stroke 
within a week after the occurrence; The photo shows 
a hew pair of shoes worn by one of the men, and a 
new, heavy pair of overalls, just as they were taken 
from him after the accident. Huoh J. Hughes. 

Agricultural College, N. D. 



THE NUMBER OF OUR ANCEST0K8. 
To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

If you and your readers are not tired of this ques- 
tion, may I suggest another solution than that Mr. 
Solon De Leon gives? . I may perhaps point out that, 
originally, I simply stated the problem, did not say 
it vexed me, and made no false sociologic assumption. 

Let X represent the first generation, and so assume 
X = 2. Assume continuity of descent, and let Xv rep- 
resent some later generation. We need not trouble 
about what value we give to y; all we want is that 
the number of individuals of the generation is repre- 
sented by Xy. We get, say, 20,000,000 of Individuals 
descended from 2 original individuals, and see at 
once that there Is some consanguineous relationship 
between all the individuals of the Xv generation. So, 



295 

if we assume all Of us now existing are descended 
from some original man and woman, it is clear we 
are all of us consanguineously related. 

Now consider any one individual existing at the 
present time. Then his parents are consanguineously 
related, but in most cases the blood relationship is so 
remote that he will treat the relationship as non-ex- 
istent. We have, in the simple form of the problem 
I use, a series, X, X', X 1 . . . Xv , where each indi- 
vidual of the Xv generation relates back in consan- 
guinity to the original generation X; but there being 
so many intermediate -generations, his collateral con- 
sanguinity to any other individual of his generation is 
so remote that to him it is non-existent. For an ex- 
ample of this we have the fact that man as an organ- 
ism is related to the monkey as an organism through 
some arboreal ancestors. But the collateral consan- 
guinity is so remote, that we treat it as non-existent. 

F. C. Constable. 
Wick Court, near Bristol, England. 

» 1 m > ♦ 

THE HIGHEST HUMAN ASCENT. 
To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

On page 239 of your Issue of October 2nd, 1909, you 
state: "The record of altitude In aeronautics has been 
attained by Sig. Placenza and Lieut. Mina, in an ascen- 
sion made from Milan on August 10th, 1909. Their 
great spherical balloon . . . reached an elevation 
of 38,700 feet, or more than seven miles." This state- 
ment, based probably on the press reports, is incorrect, 
as proved by a letter from the aeronauts themselves, 
Messrs. Mina and Placenza, published in the. French 
journal L'Aerophile, of September 1st, from which it 
appears that the maximum height was only about 
9,200 meters, or 30,180 feet. Since their cotton balloon 
held only 80,500 cubic feet and contained illuminating 
gas, this was a remarkable performance; and though 
there is some doubt as to the barometric observations, 
it probably exceeds both the French and Italian rec- 
ords. The world's record is, however, still held by 
Messrs. Berson and Siiring, who ascended from Char- 
lottenburg, near Berlin, on July 31st, 1901, in a bal- 
loon of nearly 300,000 cubic feet capacity partially 
filled with hydrogen gas, to the height of 34,450 feet. 

A. Lawrence Rotch. 
Blue Hill Observatory, Hyde Park, Mass. 

-j — •' ♦ '« ■»»' ' 

AERIAL WARFARE IN 1798. 
To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

In connection with the letter published in your 
issue of September 18th it may be of interest to cite 
an earlier suggestion of invading England by bal- 
loon. In R. P. Heame's "Aerial Warfare" a copy of a 
print of i798 is reproduced from the collection of 
Capt. Baden-Powell, and this print bears the follow- 
ing inscription; 

"The Grand Republican balloon intended to convey 
the Army of England from the Gallic shore; for the 
purpose of exchanging French liberty for English 
happiness! Accurately copied from a plan presented 
to the executive directory by Citizen Monge." 

The Grand Republican balloon, is depicted as having 
a spherical gas bag to which is suspended, by means 
of rope ladders, a peculiar contrivance half ship and 
half house. On top of the gas bag is the Gallic cock 
holding a tri-color surmounted by a liberty cap. Half- 
way down the sphere is a great circle on which is 
encamped a detachment of troops and a guillotine. 
Pipes to let out the inflammable air also appear, while 
a pair of ornamental wings are noted. A small cap- 
tive balloon to serve as a boat is fastened to the great 
circle from which a lighthouse juts out. 

The lower portion is a jumble of houses and sails 
with apartments for the officers in the hold. Below 
this again is the magazine suspended by cables, while 
a box-like structure on one side bears the designation 
of "water closet." The print bears the mark of a 
London publisher and forms an interesting addition 
to the cartoons of that period. 

Gerald Ellis Cronin. 



The operation of the 1,200-volt direct-current system 
of inter urban' railway control is dealt with by Mr. 
C. D. Eveleth in a paper read before the Street Rail- 
way Association of the State of New York. Four lines 
have adopted the system in America. The obvious ad- 
vantages; assuming that there are no drawbacks, which 
Mr. Eveleth sets out to demonstrate, are that the first 
cost is low, maintenance is not more expensive, and 
extensions to existing lines can be entered upon with 
much more ease and confidence. There are now in 
operation or under contract eleven systems of 1,200-volt 
direct-current railways, employing motors of 50, 75, 
and 150 horse-power, and Mr. Eveleth predicts that in 
a few years the 1,200 voltage will be as common as 
600. The cars can be easily operated on 600-volt sec- 
tions where necessary. Those electrical engineers In 
Great Britain who still hope that the authorities will 
some day "encourage" the construction of rural and 
interurban light railways will welcome these American 
experiences as suggesting further sources of economy 
in rendering their schemes commercially attractive. 



296 



Scientific American. 



October 23, 1909. 



THE LATEST SUBMARINES OE THE UNITED STATES 
NAVY. 
As In all mechanical development an Improved type 
of any particular device is an evolution from its prede- 
cessors, so in general, the modern Holland torpedo 
boat, of which the government is now building a num- 
ber, is a descendant of the original little craft of that 
name, which first made its appearance at the close of 
the Spanish war. 



below the surface of the water. At these depths the 
pressure of the water is great, so that the hull must 
be made sufficiently strong to withstand it. 

Up to the present, it has been found that the most 
efficient size for a boat is about 140 feet long and 14 
feet in diameter. With such dimensions, a boat can 
be built which will fulfill all requirements which the 
naval authorities of the world demand from it. That 
is to say, it can cruise on the surface for long dis- 



pletely submerged with nothing visible above water, 
for a distance of 150 miles. 

There are two distinct conditions in which the boat 
may be used. In the first, commonly known as the 
surface condition, the boat is prepared for cruising. 
A considerable portion of her hull is above water, a 
removable navigating bridge is in place, and she is 
driven by large, powerful, internal-combustion engines. 
Under these conditions she is managed in about the 





The dark object in the center is the conning tower. The periscope to which the flagstaff is attached 

projects above water when the boat is submerged and by Its means the commanding officer can 

view surrounding objects as clearly as though he looked through a field glass at the surface. 

Submarine beginning to dive. 



These engines are used onlv in traveling at the surface. They can drive the boat at 14 knots. For 
submerged work they are uncoupled and the boat is driven by two electric motors. The lat- 
ter take their energy from storage batteries which have been charged by the gas engines. 

One of the twin internal-combustion engines of the submarine. 




10 rigm ana left are the electric motors which drive the boat, when submerged, at 10.5 knots 

per hour. 

Looking aft in engine room. 



In the center are the two torpedo discharge tubes. To the left Is the electric motor and gear by 
which the doors in the nose of the submarine are opened for discharge of torpedoes. 

View on main floor looking forward. 




The hand wheel to the right operates the diving rudders used for steering in a vertical plane. In 

front of the wheel is a gage whose pointer shows the depth in feet of theboat below the surface. 

The curved dark line below pointer Is a spirit level which shows the inclination of the boat. 

Diving wheel and depth pressure gage. 



This shows the roof, not the floor, of the submarine interior. The horizontal eyepiece and the 
. vertical telescope tube are rotated by means of the hand-wheel whose pinion engages 

a-t internal gear ring. 



Eyepiece at bottom of periscope. 



THE LATEST SUBMARINES OF THE UNITED STATES NAVY. 



The form of hull is generally described as cigar- 
shaped. It is built of the very best quality of mild 
steel, and the workmanship is of the highest order, for 
the reason that every seam and rivet must be perfect- 
ly tight, in view of the service which the boat is 
called upon to perform. Not only do vessels of this, 
type undergo all the stresses of sea and weather 
which other vessels are subjected to, but in addition 
they are required to navigate at considerable depths 



tances at a speed of fourteen knots. At lower speeds 
its radius of action extends to several thousand miles. 
For submerged work large storage batteries are pro- 
vided, which furnish energy sufficient to drive the 
boat from ten to eleven knots for a period of over an 
hour. The same electrical energy will drive her at a 
lower speed for a much longer time. The latest sub- 
marines, built for the government by the Fore River 
Company, at about five knots speed can run corn- 



same way as any vessel built to run upon the surface. 
As for sea-going qualities, our submarines have been 
found in practice to be excellent. In ordinary weather 
they are fully as comfortable as any surface craft of 
the same dimensions, and even in the heaviest weather 
they are. entirely seaworthy. 

The second distinct condition exists when the boat is 
submerged. To pass from the surface to the sub- 
(Continued on page 305.) 



October 23, 1909. 



Scientific American. 



297 



AN ALL-SEEING EYE FOB THE SUBMARINE. 

Vision under water is limited to but a few yards at 
best, and hence a submarine boat, when submerged, 
would be as blind as a ship in a dense fog and would 
have to grope its way along guided only by 'chart and 
compass, were it not for a device known as a peri- 
scope, that reaches upward and projects out of the 
water, enabling the steersman to view his surround- 
ings from the surface. Of course the height of the 
periscope limits the depth at which the craft may be 
safely sailed. Nor can the periscope tube be extended 
indefinitely, because the submarine must be capable of 
diving under a Vessel when occasion demands. But 
when operating just under the surface, where it can 
see without being seen, the craft is in far greater 
danger of collision than .vessels on the surface, because 
it must depend upon its own alertness and agility to 
keep out of the way of other boats. The latter can 
hardly be expected to notice the inconspicuous peri- 
scope tube projecting from the water in time to turn 
their great bulks out of the danger course. 

The foregoing article describes the type of periscope 
now in common use on submarines and one of the 
engravings on this page clearly illustrates the prin- 
ciples of the instrument. A serious defect of this type 
of instrument is that the field of vision is too limited. 
The man at the wheel is able to see under normal 



jectives C and D (Pig. 3) between which a condenser 
E is interposed at the image plane of the lens C. At 
the bottom of the periscope tube the rays are reflected 
by means of a prism F into the eyepiece. Two eye- 
pieces are employed. One of low power, Gf, is a Kelner 
eyepiece, the purpose of which is to permit inspection 
of the whole image, while a high-powered eccentrically 
placed Huyghenian eyepiece, H, enables one to inspect 
portions of the image. The two eyepieces are mounted 
in a rectilinear chamber, I, which may be rotated 
about the prism at the end of the periscope, thus 
bringing one or other of the eyepieces into active posi- 
tion. The plan view, Fig. 4, shows in full lines the 
high-powered eyepiece in operative position, while the 
dotted lines indicate the parts moved about to bring 
the low-powered eyepiece into use. A small catch, /, 
shown in Fig. 2, serves to hold the chamber in either 
of these two positions. The high-powered eyepiece is 
mounted on a plate, K, which may be rotated to bring 
the eyepiece into position for inspecting any desired 
portions of the annular image. The parts are so ar- 
ranged that when the eyepiece is in its uppermost posi- 
tion, as indicated by full lines in Fig. 2, the observer 
can see that which is directly in front of the subma- 
rine, and when the eyepiece is in its low position, as 
indicated by dotted lines, he sees objects to the rear 
of the submarine. With the eyepiece at the right or 



Bed and White meat. 

The flesh of cattle, sheep, horses, wild hogs, deer, 
hares, pigeons, ducks, geese, and salmon is red or dark 
colored, while the flesh of calves, domestic hogs, rab- 
bits, trout, pike, all flat fishes, lobsters, and crabs is 
White or pale. In fowls, white meat is found in the 
breast, dark meat in the legs and thighs. The con- 
trast is most sharply marked in wild fowl. In frogs, 
on the contrary, the legs are white and the rest of the 
flesh is dark. The mackerel, the eel, and many other 
kinds of fish also have both white and dark flesh. 

Knobloch has shown that this anatomical distinction 
between white and dark muscles runs parallel with the 
distinction between agile and sluggish muscular fibers, 
which has been established by physiological experi- 
ment. In general, pale muscles are more active than 
dark or red muscles. They contract more quickly, but 
they become fatigued sooner than the dark muscles, 
because they produce, in performing the same amount 
of work, x a larger quantity of lactic acid, which is the 
fatigue product of muscles. The two classes of muscu- 
lar fibers differ also in sectional dimensions. The ad- 
ductor, or shell-closing, muscle of the mussel consists 
of a white and a gray portion, which can be clearly 
distinguished from each other, and the presence of 
both kinds of fibers is explained by the habits of this 
mollusk. 





The universal Observation lens. 



The periscope top. 



- 




10". 




W 

20- 

40' 


5 " /i?.- 






WW 








\ 60' 


70' 


M 






|k 70' 
W 80* 


90* 


KMl] 






1 90' 

1 ' 


,oo- 






JH 100 


no' 






■^m 110' 


120* • i""^w 






Jw iw 


130" >W -. 




/ 


d£ jj^ 130° 


^•^a^iA-i 


wi 


fii* 


•j^TM 


ISO' 


-«Sj 




W^^ ,50° 


I0O- 


170" 


180" 


160° 

ire 














'**&* 



Periscope in general use. 



A photograph taken with the perlseopfe universal lens. British periscope with universal eye. 

EOBMS OF FEBISCOFES FOB SUBMABINES. THE EYE THAT LOOKS IN ALL BISECTIONS AT ONCE. 



conditions only that which lies immediately before the 
boat. It is true that he can turn the periscope about 
so as to look in other directions, but this, of course, 
involves considerable inconvenience. On at least two 
occasions has a submarine boat been run down by a 
vessel coming up behind it. 

As long as the submarine has but a single eye it 
would seem quite essential to make this eye all-seeing; 
and since, the two lamentable accidents just referred 
to, an inventor in England has- devised 'a periscope 
which provides a view in all directions at the same 
time. This has been attempted before, but it has 
been found very difficult to obtain an annular lens 
mirror which would project the: image down the peri- 
scope tube without distortion. The accompanying 
illustrations show how this difficulty has now been 
overcome. While we will not attempt to entef into a 
mathematical explanation of the precise form of the 
mirror lens, it will suffice to state. that it is an annular 
prism. The prism is a zonal section of a sphere with 
a conoidal central opening and a slightly concave base. 
All the surfaces, however, are generated by arcs of 
circles owing to the. mechanical inconvenience of pro- 
ducing truly hyperboloidal surfaces. The lens mirror 
is shown in section at A in Fig. 1. The arrows indi- 
cate roughly the course of the rays into the lens and 
their reflection from the surface B, which .. is prefer- 
ably silvered. The tube is provided with two ob- 



at the left he sees objects at the right or left, respec- 
tively, of the submarine. The high-powered eyepiece 
is slightly inclined, so that the image may be viewed 
normally and to equal advantage in all parts. Mounted 
above a plain unsilvered portion of the mirror is a 
scale of degrees which appears just outside of the an- 
nular image. A scale is also engraved on the plate K 
with a fixed pointer on the chamber, making it pos- 
sible to locate the position of any object and' rotate 
the plate K so as to bring the eyepiece H on it. The 
scale also makes it possible to locate the object with 
respect to the boat. 

This improved periscope is applicable not only to sub- 
marine boats but for other - purposes as well, such as 
photographic land surface work, in which the entire 
surroundings may be recorded in a single photograph. 
The accompanying photograph taken through a peri- 
scope of this type shows the advantages of this ar- 
rangement and gives an idea of its value to the sub- 
marine observer when using the low-powered eyepiece. 
Of course, by using the other eyepiece any particular 
part of the view may Ye enlarged and examined in 
detail. 



Cement for Meerschaum. — Stir very fine meerschaum 
chips with white of egg or dissolve caseine in water 
glass, stir in finely powdered magnesia and use the 
cement at once. It hardens very quickly. 



The mussel propels itself through the water by 
quickly opening and closing its shell, but in the pres- 
ence of danger it keeps its shell closed for long 
periods. The rapid swimming movements are started 
by the pale and agile muscular fibers and maintained 
by the automatic operation of the dark, sluggish fibers, 
which also serve to hold the shell closed. The same 
biological law of division of labor appears to govern 
the character of the muscular structure of higher ani- 
mals. The relative proportions of pale, agile fibers 
and dark, sluggish fibers are determined by the 
method of locomotion. The incessantly leaping frog 
possesses a much larger proportion of white muscle 
than the slowly creeping toad. The leg muscles of 
fowls are dark because the legs almost continually 
support the weight of the body, but the breast mus- 
cles are white because the wings are used only occa- 
sionally, and for short periods. The dove, contin- 
ually on the wing, has dark-colored breast muscles. 
The flesh of the sportive calf and lamb is white, while 
that of the contemplative cow and sheep is red. The 
ever-active heart and respiratory muscles, and the very 
frequently-used muscles which move the eyes and 
jaws, are red. The flesh of calves and lambs and the 
white legs of young chickens darken with advancing 
age. Knobloch infers that the white muscles repre- 
sent the primitive stage, through which every dark 
muscle has passed. — Prometheus. 



298 



COL. JOHN JACOB ASTOB'S NOVEL STEAMSHIP 
CHAIB. 

Many people in crossing the ocean have experienced 
inconvenience by reason of the fact that the chairs in 
the saloon and card-rooms are rigidly screwed to the 
floor. The chairs are secured at such a distance from 
the tables that they will accommodate persons of very 
ample proportions, and, therefore, when a compara- 
tively thin person occupies a chair, he finds it neces- 
sary to sit merely on the edge, for should he endeavor 
to lean back in the chair, he finds himself too far v 
from the table. 

While recently returning from Europe, Col. John 
Jacob Astor conceived of a very simple and practical 
scheme whereby the chairs may be firmly held in 
place at any desired distance from the tables or may 
be easily released and moved about. Col. Astor's 
scheme involves the use of a vacuum cup beneath the 
chair and so mounted that it may be pressed into en- 
gagement with the deck or floor to hold the chair by 
suction, or the vacuum may be broken, the cup lifted, 
and the chair released. 

If the chair is on a deck or hardwood floor or on 
rubber tiling, the vacuum will hold indefinitely, while 
if used on a carpet it will probably be necessary to 
depress the cup and raise ^t again occasionally to form 
a new vacuum;. This device will undoubtedly add 
greatly to the comfort of the traveling public, as 
chairs may then be quickly and securely fastened at 
the desired distance from the table to accommodate 
either fleshy or thin persons. Col. Astor intends to 
present this invention to the public, as has been 
his custom' with all his recent inventions. 

Gold Dredging In Alaska. 

BT GBOBGB B. WA1SH. 

The continued exploitation of new gold fields 
by the big gold dredges in different parts of the 
world has given to this industry many new 
points of economy which the companies are tak- 
ing advantage of. The great districts where the 
gold dredges have been in most successful opera- 
tion are Australia, California, and Alaska. In 
both of th6 former places the wholesale dredg- 
ing of the ground by the mammoth "gold ships" 
has caused some trouble with the official authori- 
ties, and the question of restoring the dredged 
fields to something like their former condition 
has been adjudicated in the courts. 

In Australia the work of reclaiming the 
dredged ground has been accomplished by ad- 
vance stripping of the surface soil, so that this 
can be separated from the coarse sand and silt 
from below. The surface soil is first stripped 
and deposited in separate places before the 
gravel is touched; and then after the dredging 
is completed, the surface soil is replaced, so that 
the land can be used for other purposes. In 
California, where the gold ships threatened to 
interfere with the, flow of the rivers, the dredging 
companies have been compelled by the State au- 
thorities to restore the dredged land in certain 
districts, so that the normal water flow will not 
be interrupted. 

No such trouble, however, is found in Alaska, 
where gold dredging has been carried on ex- 
tensively in the past year or two. Alaska is 
more suited to this form of gold mining than, 
any other country, and great stretches of river soil 
await the companies with dredges. When the first big 
gold dredge was shipped to Alaska in sections and 
then assembled there, it was looked upon as a very 
uncertain investment. Owing to the short open sea- 
son when the dredges could be operated, and the great 
cost of getting the dredges into the distant' mining re- 
gions, it was not looked upon with favor by capitalists. 

Subsequent events and experience have changed all 
of this. In the first place, the enormous area of gold 
land suitable for bucket dredging makes it possible 
for the gold ships to operate indefinitely without be- 
ing transported to .new regions. In fact, the field is 
almost inexhaustible. Consequently, the investments 
in the big dredges cannot prove other than very profit- 
able, even if for the first year or two they could make 
little. But even with the comparatively short open 
season when' the ground is not frozen hard, the gold 
ships have proved extremely profitable, and the fleet 
up there has steadily increased from year to year. 

In California, where the gold dredges can be oper- 
ated the year around, the dirt yields on an average 
only 15 cents per cubic yard, and yet with this low 
yield the work is very profitable. On the other hand, 
the placer fields of Nome run from $1 to $20 per cubic 
yard, which accounts for the fact that the dredges 
make more money in their short summer season than 
the California dredges can do in twelve months of the 
year. A five-foot bucket dredge can wash as much 
gravel as 3,000 men can do by hand, and consequently 
it can secure a profit on dirt so low in grade that 
hand. washing is utterly impossible; 

There are more than a dozen gold dredges now in 
operation in the Nome district, and every one of 



Scientific American* 

these is earning big profits. The Guggenheims of 
New York have been operating three dredges for sev- 
eral years, and several new ones are now in the course 
of construction. The Nome Gold Dredge and Power 
Company, composed chiefly of New York capitalists 
and engineers, has installed several more dredges in 
the Nome district. This concern owns or controls 
ne'arly 2,000 acres of placer ground, which on a low 
estimate yields about $3.50 of gold per cubic yard. 

It costs about $120,000 to get one of these dredges 
up in Alaska and ready for operation in the placer dis- 
trict, but such a dredge will yield a net return of 
nearly $600,000 per year. Such enormous returns on 
the investment certainly justify the installation of 
new dredges. A dozen such dredges now in operation 
in Alaska yield annually several million dollars' worth 
of gold, and most of this is reclaimed from districts 
that the hand operating companies overlook. The 
craze for new districts that yield enormous returns 
continues to attract the average miner, and he passes 
over unnoticed the placer mines that prove rich har- 
vests to the dredge companies. There is no interfer- 
ence by State authorities with dredging in Alaska, and 
no thought or consideration of restoring the surface 
after operations' enters into the calculations of the 
companies. 

The character of most of the gravel in the Nome 
district makes it ideal for either dredging or hydraul- 
icking. It is almost entirely free of large bowlders, 
clay substances, and roots which might obstruct the 
operations of the dredge or sluicing apparatus. The 



October 2% 1909. 

possibilities for work for many years to come., has 
marked a new era" in mining for the precious metal 
in this far northern country. It is the beginning of 
the end of aimless, unscientific gold mining. The 
great finds of gold where prospectors can pick up 
gold in quantities are no longer, so common as a few 
years ago. The field has been pretty nearly investi- 
gated, and the character of the mining must change 
to suit new conditions. This means that the influx 
of fortune hunters will gradually cease, and mining 
will fall into the hands of companies, who are willing 
to get their returns gradually through, improved, 
though somewhat expensive, methods of work. A 
great many owners of ordinary placer claims are to- 
day renting out their land to gold-dredging companies, 
and others are organizing for the purpose of installing 
their own dredges. Taking the returns for a period of 
five or ten years, the profits of a gold dredge company 
are infinitely higher than another which depends en- 
tirely upon making rich finds and then gathering the 
surface gold for quick returns. Gold dredging in 
Alaska is thus an infant but lusty industry, and its 
growth in the next few years must be phenomenal and 
steady. 



COL. JOHN JACOB ASTOB'S IMPROVED STEAMSHIP CHAIB. 

- placer lands lie for the most part in valleys between - 
sloping hills. This land is covered with snow early 
in the fall, . and thus prevents hard freezing. As a 
result, dredging operations can begin as early as the 
first half of June and continue fully four months, or 
for about 120 days. This makes a season's work, and 
then the dredges have to stop operations for the long 
winter. It seems like a very short season' for mining 
operations, but owing to the character of the soil and 
the gold yield, it proves very profitable. 

Before an investment is made in a gold dredge of 
this character, the placer land is first carefully in- 
vestigated and the probable gold output estimated. 
Thus, before the first dredge was shipped to Alaska, 
upward of a hundred shafts were sunk to depths rang- 
ing from 10 to 15 feet, and the lowest yields of gold 
were found to be $3.50 per. cubic yard, while in the 
river beds the gold often ran as high as 15 cents per 
pan, or over $20 per cubic yard. 

Except at the foothills, the dredge companies around 
Nome have. never yet struck bedrock, and the lowest 
shaft put down was 15 feet in depth. Further sinking 
was prevented by the shafts filling with water, but 
from every indication the bedrock is at least 25 to 30 
feet below the surface. This bedrock is composed of 
mica schist and slate. In all the dredging operations 
of these placer mines, the values increase more stead- 
ily at bedrock than at higher points; and even from 6 
to 18 inches into the bedrock the returns are large. The 
whole character of the land is ideal for dredging, and 
there is plenty of water for as many dredges as could 
possibly be used. 

The fact is, the coming of the big gold dredges in 
Alaska and their successful operation, with unlimited 




Has the Earth's Climate Changed In Historic 
Times? 

The explorations in Central Asia have laid bare the 
ruins of once flourishing cities. M. Boutquin, in the 
French journal Ciel et Terre, proves, by historical 
evidence and modern scientific discoveries, that the 
abandonment of these regions by the human race 
was brought about by causes entirely unrelated 
to such supposed meteorological changes as a 
general cooling of climates or a progressive 
desiccation of the globe. In Europe, for ex- 
ample, a sensitive lowering of the temperature 
and decrease in the precipitation of rain and 
snow would have caused a well-marked and con- 
tinuous recession of glaciers, but no such reces- 
sion is shown by the records of more than two 
thousand years. Helm has proved that, although 
the glaciers of the Alps receded during the lat- 
ter half of the nineteenth century, they are now 
far more extensive than they were in the Middle 
Ages. 

Polybius, in the second century B. C, describ- 
ed the rich gold and silver mines of the Tyrol. 
These mines yielded abundantly until the mid- 
dle of the sixteenth century, after which date 
their productiveness rapidly diminished because 
the mouths of shafts became covered with ice. 
A shaft sunk at this epoch was covered in 1570 
by a glacier 65 feet thick. Resistance to the in- 
vasion of the ice soon became impossible. In 
the eighteenth century the glacier was more 
than 300 feet high, and in 1875 it had attained 
a height of 460 feet. 

For many years it was asserted that the east 
coast of Greenland had formerly enjoyed a mild 
climate, wh^ch favored the growth of vegetation 
and gave rise to the name Greenland. The his- 
torical researches of Rink and Von Maurer, how- 
ever, have proved that the decay of the posts 
established by the Norwegians in olden times 
was caused by the introduction of a contagious 
disease and by the adoption, by the Norwegian 
government, of. an unwise- economic policy, which 
provoked hostile attacks by the Eskimos. Equally er- 
roneous statements have been made in regard to Ice- 
land. 

In the British Isles, the cultivation of wheat form- 
erly extended much farther north than it does at pres- 
ent, simply because it was then, in the absence of 
foreign competition, more profitable . than it is now. 
Yet it has been very difficult to gain acceptance for 
this elementary truth; the popular belief in a change 
of season or climate for a long time prevailed over all 
evidence. 

In Belgium and other countries, also, agriculture has 
been radically transformed by the operation of eco- 
nomic laws, improved methods of culture, and a more 
intelligent choice of crops. In the Middle^ Ages and 
until the fifteenth century the vine was cultivated in 
Bavaria and in other parts of : Germany from which 
it has now almost entirely disappeared, but its disap- 
pearance is not due to climatic changes. The wine 
produced in these districts was generally of inferior 
quality and, with the growing refinement of taste, it 
was gradually supplanted by foreign wines and good 
native beer. 

The culture of the vine has practically disappeared 
from Belgium for similar reasons. Two Belgian 
abbeys still possess vineyards and make wine for 
sacramental use. In France, it has been proved that 
the vintage season has not shifted appreciably since 
the fourteenth century. It has likewise been; demon- 
strated that, contrary to the popular belief, the olive 
was never cultivated in Switzerland except to a very 
small extent in gardens, and that no change has oc- 
curred in Swiss agricultural products in general.— 
Cosmos. 



October 23, 1909. 






Handy 

Man's 

Worksho] 



AN EASILY CONSTRUCTED EQUATORIAL MOUNT POR 
SMALL TELESCOPES. 

BT FBOF. B. W. WOOD, JOHS8 HOFKDJB UNIVBRSITr, BALTIMORE. 

In the course of some experiments which I have 
been making at my summer laboratory in East Hamp- 
ton, Long Island, on the photography of the moon In 
ultra-violet light ( =3,100 — 3,200) it became neces- 
sary to provide an equatorial stand with a slow-mo- 
tion screw for accurate following. As a polar axis is 
often desired in a hurry for special work, and as 
there are doubtless many amateurs who sometimes 
feel the need of such a stand, it seems worth while 




THE SLOW-MOTION SCBEW. 

to give a short description of a very efficient, though 
hurriedly improvised, one which I constructed for my 
purpose. 

It was made from the frame of a discarded bicycle, 
the bearings of the steering rod being, however, in 
good condition, with little or no lateral movement 
The wheels, sprockets, saddle, etc., were removed, and 
the frame stood up in a wooden box, in such a position 
that the steering axis was approximately at the lati- 
tude angle. The box was then filled with Portland 
cement (1 part cement with 3 parts of clean sand and 
sufficient water) which was allowed to solidify. The 
larger places were filled with bricks and rock frag- 
ments to economize the cement.. A day or two is suffi- 
cient for the solidification, after which the box can be 
knocked to pieces, leaving the frame rigidly mounted 
in a solid and very massive block. This block was 
placed on a small brick pier and the adjustment of 
the polar axis made by blocking up one end of the 
cement base. A short' piece of 2 x 4-inch joist was 
lashed to the handles of the bicycle with strong wire, 
which served as a support for the declination axis. 
The rest of the stand is to be designed according to 
the use to which it is to be put. In my own case I 
required merely a device which would enable me to 
keep my quartz telescope pointed accurately at the 
moon for two minutes. From odds and ends which 
had accumulated in my shop the arrangement shown 
in the illustration was built. A short plank was 
mounted on the 2x4 on a horizontal steel axis turn- 
ing in brass bearings. To the forward end of the 
plank a rod was fastened which passed through a 
wooden block clamped between the lower ends of the 
front forks with a small bolt. This block could be 
turned to suit the elevation of the telescope, and the 
rod fastened with a "set-screw," shown by an' arrow 
in the picture. 

Slow motion about the polar axis was accomplished 
by a brass rod, hinged to a larger piece of rod which 
fitted into the T tube which formerly carried the sad- 
dle. A small piece of brass tubing was soldered to a 
small piece of %-inch sheet brass, through which 
passed the slow-motion screw, sharpened to a point 
and turned by a small wooden wheel, made from a 




EASILY CONSTRUCTED EQUATORIAL MOUNT TOR TELESCOPES. 



Scientific American 

spool (indicated by an arrow). The brass tube and 
screw could be clamped at any point on the long brass 
rod by means of a set-screw. The point of the slow- 
motion screw turned in a small conical pit in a piece 
of brass fastened to the end of the 2x4 Joist. The 
weight of the instrument being carried on the han- 
dles, that is, above the polar axis, the instrument 
always tended to turn (by gravity) upside down, ex- 
cept when pointed at the meridian. This it was pre- 
vented frdif doing by the pressure of the point of the 
slow-motion 'screw; and by turning the screw either 
forward or backward according to whether the instru- 
ment was pointing east or west of the meridian, a 
very uniform rotation about the polar axis was se- 
cured. A diagram of the slow-motion screw is given 
In the accompanying line drawing. 

The Instrument was set approximately in the merid- 
ian by sighting the pole star in line with the edges 
of the two front tubes of the diamond frame. The 
proper elevation of the polar axis was secured by 
trial, observing whether, in following the moon, it 
moved up or down in the field of the telescope. In 
half an hour I got the thing In such shape that I 
could keep the center of a small crater on the point 
of intersection of the cross hairs of the telescope for 
ten minutes, and as this was more, than the required 
accuracy I let it go at that. The instrument as con- 
structed works admirably except when pointed at the 
meridian. On passing the meridian the slow-motion 
screw is carried over to the other end of the 2x4 
Joist, this movement being allowed by the hinge at 
the end of the rod. When accurate following is not 
necessary, that is, when it is merely necessary to keep 
the object in the field, a more convenient arrange- 
ment would be a brass cog wheel attached to the 
steering rod below the handles, and turned by a worm . 
wheel: this would obviate the trouble when crossing 
the meridian. It would not, however, give such uni- 
form motion as the arrangement described, unless ac- 
curately and carefully made. 

For mounting a small telescope any device can be 
used which will permit the instrument to swing up 
and down in a plane. 

It is quite remarkable how well the old bicycle 
frame lent itself to the construction of the stand. The 
front forks which hold the "elevation" fixed, and the 
saddle tube for supporting the slow-motion rod, could 
hardly be improved upon if made for the purpose. 

.m ttt m 

ALTERNATING CURRENT EXPERIMENTS. 

BT PB2DEBICK B. WABD. 

Students and amateurs who like to make electrical 
experiments are particularly fortunate If they have 
alternating current lighting service in their homes, 
as the alternating current lends itself especially well 
to the performance of easy experiments that are at 
the same time both amusing and instructive. Of the 
many kinds of experiments that may be made with 
simple apparatus there are perhaps no others that are 
more interesting than those which illustrate the prin- 
ciples of the rotary magnetic field and its application 
to electric energy meters and to induction motors. 

For making the necessary apparatus there are re- 
quired two similar laminated iron rings about 3% 
inches inside diameter, 4%: inches outside diameter, 
and % inch thick. These may be built up by colling 
up a sufficient length of thin sheet iron strips, cut % 
inch wide, using a round wooden block to start on. 
Compact iron wire bundles of about the same dimen- 
sions may be substituted with good results, or, better 
than either of the above, rings made up of a suffi- 
cient number of thin sheet-iron punchlngs. After the 
rings are made, all sharp edges should be rounded off 
with a file and a smooth covering of cotton tape be 
applied as shown in Fig. 1, A. 

If there is any choice between the two 
rings, select for the field the one that comes 
nearest to being a true circle on the inside. 
For the winding on this ring use No. 23 or 
No. 24 double cotton-covered magnet wire. 
Have the wire on a spool small enough to pass 
through the ring easily, and begin at any 
point such as B, Fig. 1. Wind the wire in a 
single layer, with turns as smooth and close 
as possible on the inner circumference, until 
exactly one-quarter of the latter has been cov- 
ered. Next reverse the direction of winding 
as shown at O, Fig. 1, and cover the second 
quarter of the ring by passing the spool 
through in the opposite direction, after tying 
down the little loop at with a piece of 
thread. Make similar reversals at the half 
and three-quarter points, and cut off the wire 
near the place of beginning. This completes 
one-half of the winding. The second half is 
to be wound on top of the first half, and is 
to be similar in atl respects except that the 
place of beginning must be shifted to a point 
15 deg. away, as at £>, Fig. 1. 

The second ring, which is for a reactance, 
is to be wound with 600 turns of magnet wire 
of any size larger than No. 20. This winding 



299 



must not have any reversals in it, all of the turns 
being passed through the ring in the same direction. 
Lay the two rings down flat on a piece of board 
and make connections to a 110-volt 60-cycle supply 
circuit as shown in the diagram in Fig. 1, where 8 
indicates a snap switch or knife switch, and L, L, L, 
L four 16-candle-power 110-volt lamps. When the 
switch is closed, current flows through the two wind- 
ings on the field ring in such manner as to produce 
four magnetic poles that are not stationary but rotate 




Eig. 1.— DETAILS 07 TEE EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS. 

or progress around the ring 1,800 times per minute. 
A pocket compass placed close to one side in the field 
as shown will rotate at this speed and illustrate the 
principle of the synchronous motor, in which the mag- 
netized rotor is dragged around by the rotating mag- 
netic poles of the field just as positively as if it were 
geared directly to the dynamo. If the compass be 
placed close to the ring on the outside, it will turn 
in the opposite direction. The field can be reversed 
by exchanging the connections to either one of its 
two coils. 

To show the poles made by the field, lay a sheet 
of white paper on the ring and sprinkle some fine 
iron filings on it while the current is on. It is not 
so easy to show the movement of the poles in this 
way, but it may be done as follows: Shake some very 
fine iron filings through a piece of cloth on a sheet 
of paper, and then hold up the latter by one corner. 
The larger particles will slide off, and only the very 
finest will cling fast like dust. Lay the paper on the 
ring while the current is oft, and close the switch 
for the briefest possible moment. Do this several 
times in succession, and considerable movement of 
the particles will be observed. 

Drive a large pin through a piece of wood as shown 
in Fig. 1, F, and balance on the- point a brass box 
cover or bell so that the latter is free to turn. If the 
magnetic field be then placed around the bell, the 
latter will be slowly dragged around by reason of the 
eddy currents set up therein, and will illustrate in 
part the principle of the driving mechanism of some 
forms of integrating wattmeters. Observe how the 
speed of the piece of brass varies in proportion to the 
number of lamps that are lighted at L. 

If an iron- (tin) box cover be substituted for the 
brass one the speed will be higher and the pull more 
vigorous, illustrating the principle of the induction 
motor. If an empty tin can be thus supported in the 
field, it will be rotated with considerable force and 
soon get off the pin. Fig. 2 shows how the field may 
be supported in a vertical position and provided with 
a better rotor, from which it is possible to get enough 
power to drive light toys. The details of the rotor 
are shown in Fig.. 1, where W is a turned wooden 
support provided with a small shaft X, and having in 
its periphery an iron hoop r over which is slipped 
a copper hoop Z. To be efficient the rotor must be 
made of a diameter as large as possible without touch- 




Fig. 2.— ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTOR, 



300 

ing the windings of the field. It should be made to 
run true, and turn easily on its shaft. 

The performance of the above experiments and of 
others that will be suggested by them can be made 
more interesting by studying the reasons why from 
some good textbook on the elements of alternating 
currents, to which the reader is referred for a fuller- 
explanation of the principles involved. 

m > m i • 

DEVICE FOB BEHOVING WOOD SCBEWS. 

BY JAMES PATER80N. 

In the Handy Man's Workshop department of July 
31st, a device for removing wood screws was described 
which struck me forcibly. Another device for the 
same purpose has been designed by William Laycock, 
a weaving section hand in the Arlington Mills of 
Lawrence, Mass. Quite often screws in the shuttle 
springs for holding down the spindle will break, and 
the difficulty formerly was to get out these screws with- 

^-■MMi ijii!.^;" 

DEVICE FOB BEHOVING WOOD SCBEWS. 

out injury to the shuttle, so Mr. Laycock bethought 
him of an old screw-driver spindle, cut the point off, 
and then with a hacksaw cut two grooves in it at 
right angles as indicated in the illustration. The 
grooves were made as wide as possible and fairly 
deep, leaving the edges sharp. In use the tool thus 
prepared is pressed against the broken piece of screw 
and digs into it sufficiently to permit of turning and 
thus removing the screw. 



HENDING A BROKEN HETALLIC FILAHENT. 

BY HOWABD W. NICHOLS. 

A carbon-filament incandescent lamp, when the fila- 
ment breaks, is of no further value, but in the case 
of a tungsten or tantalum lamp it is often possible 
to mend the filament so that the lamp will be nearly 
as good as new. Place the lamp with the broken fila- 
ment in a socket which is connected to the lighting 
circuit by a flexible lamp cord. Turn on the current 
and gently shake the lamp so that the broken ends 
of the filament will strike against the main part, and 
draw a small arc which will weld them securely to 
it and thus allow the current to pass through the fila- 
ment, lighting it up brighter than before breaking. 
This mending process usually cuts out only a small 
section of filament; but if a comparatively large por- 
tion of the filament should happen to be cut out of 
the circuit, it would reduce the resistance of the re- 
maining filament to such an extent that an excessive 
current would flow and thus soon burn the filament 
out. However, while it lasted, the lamp would give a 
very bright light. 



A SIHFLE FBUIT CELLAB. 

BY F. A. KAISER. 

Doubtless many readers of the Scientific American 
have found it difficult to keep apples and the pro- 
duce of their gardens, such as carrots, beets, turnips, 
celery, etc., in perfect condition until they could be 
used. The accompanying drawings show a cheap and 
easily made fruit cellar in which I kept twelve. bush- 
els of apples, besides carrots, squashes, and potatoes, 
from October until April. My house was six feet 
wide, eight feet long and six feet high, and cost me 







A SIHFLE FBUIT CELLAB. 

about $4. Smaller ones can be built for a propor- 
tionally smaller sum. 

I dug a hole about eighteen inches deep and set the 
house over it, as shown in the cross section. The en- 
trance is made like a box, about twelve inches deep, 
so that, soil or manure can be spread over the roof 
to a depth of about ten inches. Cleats A on the inside 
of the opening hold slats B at the bottom of the box 
opening, in the space O I stuff an old tick filled with 
straw or leaves. Outside cover D protects the tick 
from moisture. The rafters should be about two 
inches square, or 1x3. Provide a chimney, E (of 



Scientific American. 

wood), which must be stuffed with straw during zero 
weather. The chimney is not absolutely necessary, as 
the house can be ventilated through the door during 
mild weather. The proper slant for the roof is about 
45 deg., as earth can be packed on at that slope. Cover 
the roof with a cheap grade of building paper, or with 
newspaper, before putting on the earth, but do not 
use a paper that has a strong smell, like tar paper. 

I have had this house in use now during three win- 
ters, and it has saved me more than its cost every 
year. Apples and vegetables keep fresh tSfa plump in 
it, and do not shrivel up as they will in an Inside 
cellar. 



HOW TO HAKE A FAFEB TELESCOPE BABBEL. 

BY O. B. M'QAHHY. 

The making of a paper telescope barrel is shown 
in the accompanying illustrations. First we make a 
wooden mandrel, A, that represents the various reduc- 
tions in the barrel of the instrument. These portions 
of the mandrel are made of such diameters as to bring 
the interior of the barrel to the proper size. Wrap 
on a layer or so of paper having a dull black finish 
so as to keep down any reflection of the rays of light 
on the- interior of the instrument. When several layers' 
of this paper have been carefully applied, Manila 
paper such as used by draftsmen in making pencil 
drawings should be laid on over it. It is understood 
that this paper is laid with glue~between each layer, 
and this can be done to best advantage with the 
wooden mandrel placed between lathe centers. When 
the paper has been wrapped on to a thickness of about 
Yt inch we shall have good substantial tubes. The ex- 
terior may be varnished or covered with cloth or paper 
of fancy pattern. The stop pieces are simply rings 
laid on as shown at B. When these stop rings have 
been placed in position the ring E is atrolied and 
glued fast, after which the lens is fitted against it 
and a second ring F is applied to hold it in place. 



" t> 



^L 



t^ 




A FAFEB TELESCOPE BABBEL. 

These rings must be of dull black finish. The eye- 
piece may be applied in the same way. This makes 
a most excellent case for a telescope. 



BESTOBING A DBT CELL. 

BY DB. EDWARD M. HANSON. 

Having experienced a great deal of trouble with the 
usual small cell batteries, such as are used for medi- 
cal wall plates, gasoline engines, etc., I have experi- 
mented until I have discovered a very simple method 
of restoring the ordinary dry cell sal-ammoniac bat- 
tery. My method is as follows: Midway between the 
carbon and zinc at the top of the battery drill a hole 
3/16 inch in diameter down to within V/ 2 inch of 
the bottom of the cell. On the opposite side drill a 
hole through the sealing wax covering 1/16 inch in 
diameter and 3 inches deep. Place a small glass 
funnel in the large hole with the stem at least 2 inches 
long. Into this pour one ounce C. P. hydrochloric acid. 
After this is thoroughly absorbed pour in the fun- 
nel one ounce of water. When all is absorbed, seal 
the holes with ordinary stationer's sealing wax. After 
twelve hours it will be found that the batteries so 
treated will. work with increased voltage and amper- 
age over a new dry cell. They will work well on 
either closed or open circuit and. have from four to 
six times the life of a new dry cell. I am using a 
series now that I employed in my office for three 
years, and during that time have renewed them three 
times. The batteries will work until the zinc pole is 
completely exhausted if the chemical elements are kept 
at the required strength by renewal. 



THE HANDT HAN'S SUB-CALIBEB GUN. 

BY AUGUST MENCKEN. 

Those, familiar with heavy artillery know that sub- 
caliber work forms a very important part of the drill. 
Very accurate work can be done by this method, but 
of course the range is very much shortened and the 
recoil and noise aj-e missing. 

Anyone having a large-bore rifle, such as the old 
model Springfield, and wishing to use it for short- 
range or gallery shooting, can sub-caliber it very easily 
in the following way: 

Take an empty regulation shell and bore out the 
head so that its inside diameter will be the same 
throughout its length. Then take a 0.32 caliber 3-inch 
revolver barrel — the hexagonal kind used in cheap re- 
volvers is good enough for this purpose — and turn it 



October 23, 1909. 

up until it fits in the shell snugly but not so tightly 
as to swell the shell. Then carefully chamber the 
barrel to take the 0.32 cartridge. Great care must be 
taken in doing this, as the accuracy of the gun de- 
pends greatly on this part of the work. Next counter- 
sink the revolver barrel, B, so that the head of the 
0.32 will lie flush with the head of the regulation 
shell A, as shown in the illustration. If this is not 
done the breech will not close and the shell may be 
accidentally exploded. Pins, G, should then be driven 
through the shell and barrel to keep the latter in 
place. This will not be needed if the barrel and in- 
side of the shell are slightly tapered, the taper in- 
creasing from the muzzle end to the breech. 
For ranges from 25 feet to 100 feet .this method will 



A 



1 



^^^^K^^^^Sjjjjjjj^jjjK^j^^^^^^^^^ 




work very well, and if the rifle is built so that a 
longer barrel Could be inserted, of course its range 
would be increased. 



A DEVICE FOB EHFTTING A TUB. 

BY C. W. FAIBBANK. 

Considerable difficulty is often experienced in empty- 
ing and refilling the common form of movable wash- 
tubs. Stationary washtubs are usually provided with 
suitable plumbing connections whereby the water may 
be easily and quickly drained off, but with the ordi- 
nary form of wooden movable washtubs the entire 
tubful of water must either be lifted and carried to 
the sink or other drain to empty it, or the water must 
be bailed out of the tub and carried to the sink or 
drain by the pailful. The lifting of the tubful of 
water is often a physical impossibility, and the carry- 
ing of the water from the tub to the sink by the pail- 
ful is a tiresome task. If the house be provided with 
running water at the sink, a very simple contrivance 
may be devised for utilizing the city water pressure 
for the emptying of the tub. By providing a simple 
form of ejector at the faucet and connecting one inlet 
of the ejector to a short piece of hose leading to the 
sink, the water may be very easily drawn out of the 
tub into the sink, even though the latter be at a 
higher elevation. In the accompanying sketch, there 
is shown a simple contrivance of' this character, in 
which the ejector is formed of a block of wood adapted 
to be detachably secured to the faucet. The ejector 
includes two passages intersecting at an angle and 
having a common outlet as shown in section in Fig. 2. 
One of these passages receives a stream of water 
under pressure from the faucet, and the escape of this 
water from the lower end of the ejector tends to draw 
water' out of the tub through the hose and to deliver 
the latter to the sink. 

The same device may be used for refilling the tub. 
To secure this object, it is merely necessary to close 
tfce lower end of the ejector with a plug or in any 
other suitable manner. As shown, a short rubber 
rlug is connected to a strap tacked to one side of the 
block. By inserting the plug within the open lower 
end of the passage and securing the free end of the 
strap to a button on the opposite side of the block, as 
shown in dotted lines, the water will be caused to 
flow from the faucet down through one passage and 




HANDY HETHOD OF EHFTTING A TUB. 



up through the other to the hose and thence to the 
washtub. 

«nm 

An interesting experiment to determine whether the 
strength of iron and steel was affected by magnetism 
was carried out at the Technical Institute of Belfast 
with the -following reported result: Bars of mild steel 
and wrought iron 8 inches long by % inch to 1 inch 
in diameter were used, part of which were magnetized 
by being saturated in a solenoid. When tested^ the 
elongation of the magnetized parts decreased 3 to 16 
per cent, and the average breaking load seemed to ne 
increased. 



October 23, 1909. 



Scientific American. 



301 



BECENTLY PATENTED INVENTIONS. 
Electrical Devices. 

ELECTRICAL FUSE. — A. G. Pat, Highland 
Park, 111. The fuse is for use in blasting, the 
more particular purpose being to protect the 
materials and containing shells of the fuse 
against moisture. To this end the invention 
relates to the addition of an outer shell and 
a filling, the size of the diameter of the outer 
shell being slightly reduced at one end there- 
for for sharpening the effect of detonation of 
the fuse. 



the same time the ventilating opening is shaded 
without the necessity of using a projecting 
awning or other similar device. He provides 
a device which while permiting good ventila- 
tion prevents the rain or snow from entering 
while the device is in use. 



Of General Interest. 

BOAT. — P. M. Thompson, East Liverpool, 
Ohio. Among the characteristic features of this 
patent is a vertically rocking rudder or tail- 
plate, the movement of which causes the prow 
of the boat to rise and fall in the water to a 
degree desired. To overcome any suction and 
break up formation of vacuum at the plate the 
latter Is made hollow and means are provided 
to discharge air, Into and through. Horizontal 
rudders or vertical axes are provided in front 
of the plate and in rear of the propellers for 
steering. 

CRATE. — D. .P. Payne, Corpus Christ!, 
Texas. The invention relates to crates used 
for shipping, the more particular purpose being 
to provide a type of crate which may be folded 
readily when not in use, and provided with 
top and bottom members detachable from 
other portions of the crate and adapted to be 
sprung into position for the purpose of holding 
them into position. 

WINDOW. — H. Moetbnson, New York, N. T. 
This invention is an improved window, in 
which either the upper or lower sliding sash 
may be turned end for end and brought in- 
ward in the lower portion of the window 
frame, where the outside of the sash is easily 
accessible for washing or other purposes, and 
a ventilating space between the sashes provided 
if desired. 

RECORD-HOLDER. — W. T. Long, Sumner, 
Wash. The object here is to provide a holder 
arranged to accurately and securely hold the 
record in central position, to accommodate rec- 
ords of different sizes, to compensate for varia- 
tions of the inside diameter of the records, to 
hold the record against accidental shifting in 
an axial direction and to allow placing it 
conveniently in position on the holder or re- 
moving it therefrom. 

EMBALMING APPARATUS.— J. E. Coppola, 
Mexico, Mexico. An object in this invention 
is to provide a simple apparatus capable of 
holding the liquid and compressed air In a 
reservoir, and devices for connecting the same 
with trocars or needles for injecting the fluid 
under pressure into a cadaver. 

FLASK FOR FORMING GATED MOLDS.— 
C. W. Blue, Montgomery, Ala. This inven- 
tion provides a construction of flasks wherein 
the gated molds may be formed in tiers, and 
the pattern members withdrawn therefrom ; 
provides flasks wherein the cores may be In- 
serted from the outside of the flask and held 



Hardware. 

WRENCH. — W. A. Pratt, Stamford, Conn. 
This wrench is adapted for screwing up or 
unscrewing caps or jars and other packages, 
and for'loosenlng the caps from the rubber or 
other packing rings, it being adjusted for grip- 
ping objects of various sizes, and having 
handled V-shaped jaws pivotally connected 
with each other at their ends and a supple- 
mentary jaw adjustably and removably at- 
tached to one of the jaws 'to co-act with the 
opposite jaw. 

WOODWORKER'S PLANE. — J. H. Bbown, 
Boston, Mass. The intention here is to pro- 
vide for a plane that facilitates the exact ad- 
justment of the cutter bit laterally and longi- 
tudinaljy in the throat of the plane stock, 
enable the quick and exact graduation for size 
of the throat opening in the stock, provide 
means for clamping the cutter bit when ad- 
justed in the throat opening. 

TUBE-CUTTER. — O. R. Young, Riverhead, 
N. Y. The invention is useful for various 
different purposes, and»particularly in facili- 
tating the removal of defective tubes In a 
boiler or similar tubular structure. In a 
boiler access cannot easily be had to the ex- 
terior of the tube and some difficulty is ex- 
perienced in removing the tube unless it be cut 
in two from the interior. 

COMBINATION TOOL. — W. J. Tweedale, 
Saginaw, Mich. The intention in this case is 
to provide a wrench of ordinary construction, 
with attachments whereby it may be used as 
a pipe wrench or a drill, or a turning lathe, 
and for many other purposes. The handle may 
slip out of the extreme end of the shank so as 
to give room between the jaws for the drill 
bit 



Railways and Their Accessories. power, the chances of wide disparity are mul- 

SAFETY SWITCH-LOCK. — A. Haddock and tiplled. With the foregoing reservation, we 
A. Schmitt, New York, N. Y. An object here ' ma y say that the average coal consumption 
is t(f provide a lock which can be used in con- of tnre e nominal 10-knot boats of 700 tons 
nection with various switch systems and block ] displacement in actual service, within our 
signal systems without interfering with the ' knowledge, is 9 tons per day. The horse-power 
operations thereof, and which serve to lock a \ ot these ***&* from 400 to 600 and averages- 
switch either open or closed as set by the 500 > wnlch represents 1.5 pound of coal per 
switchman, so that the switch cannot be ac-, hour P er horse-power, which is good marine 
cidentally displaced while a train is approach- IP«"*ice. for any except the most efficient mul- 
tag the switch or passing over the same. I «ple-expansion engines. Only one of those 

boats has ever been, or could be, driven at 15 

LOCOMOTIVE-HEADLIGHT— I. L. Wade taots> and that wag ag ^ experiment! ana 

and W. L. Smith, Roanoke, Va. In the present j necessitated a consumption of 3,750 pounds of 

patent the invention Is an improvement in that coal an nourj or near i y five times the econom- 

class of locomotive headlights which are pivoted j ca ] consumption. 



and so connected with the front truck as 
to be turned with the latter in passing around 
curves. The headlight, yoke and arms may be 
readily detached when required. 

SNOW PLOW. — C. A. Belleud, Fairdale, 
N. D. The object here is to produce a snow 



(12128) N. V. V. says: Being a con- 
stant reader of the* Scientific American, I 
take the liberty to ask you the following ques- 
tion : If it takes 10 tons of coal to run a loco- 
motive 100 miles in 10 hours, how much cosJ 
would it take to run the same engine the same 



plow which will effectively operate to cut the dlgtance , n 5 nour8? , clalm thati as based 
snow from the railroad track and eject it at 
the side. In its general construction the plow 



comprises a pair of cutter wheels which are 
mounted at a forward point, and behind these 
cutter wheels an' apron is provided which assists 
in throwing the snow rearwardly into a drum, 



from which it 



discharged laterally, or at 



right angles to the track. 



Heating and Lighting. 

CORE-OVEN. — J. J. Johnson, Newark, N. J. 
The invention relates particularly to core ovens 
used for drying^or baking cores- used in mold- 
ing. The object is to produce an oven which 
will be simple in construction, the temperature 
of which can be nicely regulated, and which 
will have a construction which will enable the 
oven to be kept constantly filled. 

ILLUMINATING SIGN.— J. F.-Druar, Buf- 
falo, N. Y. This invention relates to advertis- 
ing signs such as those hung out in front of 
stores or shops to indicate the business done 
therein. An object Is to provide an illuminated 
sign which can be read at night from a con- 
siderable distance with ease and which can be 
equally as well read in the daylight. 



Machines and Mechanical Devices. 



COMPUTING-PUMP.— S. G. Wise and J. E. 
firmly in position ; and provides a flask adapted (Troyer, Jr., Gas City, and J. E. Smisor, 
to be mounted in tiers and arranged to ac- | Marion, In d. The invention refers to com- 



commodate molds of various sizes. 



puting pumps, and more particularly to pumps 



DRY SEPARATOR. — R. R. Snowden, Hous- (designed to be used in dispensing and selling 



ton, Texas. The invention relates to mills, and 
the object is to provide a separator more espe- 
cially designed for treating crushed phosphate 
rock and other materials so that the material 
in a revoluble screen is subjected to alternate 
brushing and jarring actions, to thoroughly 
separate the valuable material from the ex- 
traneous matter. 

SCREEN. — C. J. Jewett, Fort Smith, Ark. 
The invention relates to screens which may be 



fluids such as oil and the like. When one gal- 
lon of fluid is pumped by the pumping mechan- 
ism, one gallon is registered by the computing 
mechanism. When one gallon has been forced 
through the casing, the dial has made a com- 
plete revolution. 

VENDING-MACHINE. — P. A. Slichter, 
Kansas City, Mo. The aim of the inventor is 
to provide a machine more especially designed 
for use in stores and other places, and ar- 



used for clay, coal, or other materials, and an | range(1 t0 mo w convenient delivery of the 
object is to provide a screen with adjustable I merchand i S e in predetermined quantities, with- 
screen bars, and means to move the bars to 
predetermined distances from each other. 
Means prevent the material from becoming 
clogged between the screen bars. 

DAMPER-REGULATOR.— R. P. Mitchell 
and R. V. Brawley, Statesvllle, N. C. A spring 
is adjusted to retain a disk against predeter- 
mined pressure in the boiler. Means permit 

the cylinder to exhaust, but should the pres- , . . , ,. . . 

sure exceed predetermined value, means are '* t0 Drovlde a DaIloon """posed of one or 
provided to close or partially close the damper , more separate gas bags inclosed within a shell 
in accordance with the excess of pressure. A or chamber having means for regulating tern- 
valve is so elevated that a disk closes the Perature. The propellers may be caused to ro- 
inlet opening to the pipe, but when pressure i ta te horizontally or vertically. 



Pertaining to Recreation. 

SOCKET POST FOR SUPPORTING CRO- 
QUET ARCHES. — H. B. Collier, Prairie 
Grove, Ark. The purpose of this inventor is 
to provide novel details of construction for a 
socket post, which adapt it in pairs for a 
secure embedment in the ground at suitable 
points in upright positions, and for the con- 
venient insertion of the limbs of a croquet arch 
thereinto, and thus afford stable support to the 
arch in a vertical plane and permit the removal 
of the arch. 



Pertaining to Vehicles. 

AUTOMOBILE-PROTECTOR.— D. F. 



Arm- 



upon the mechanical rule, what you gain in 
speed you lose in' power, it ought to be about 
the same amount. A. It is impossible to an- 
swer your question exactlywithout a great deal 
more detail as to the locomotive, the load 
hauled, etc., but speaking generally, the fuel 
consumption Is likely to increase out of all 
proportion to the speed, If the latter is in- 
creased above the economical speed of the en- 
gine. Each engine has a certain maximum 
speed at which it can haul a given load 
economically ; and"whereas with a given quan- 
tity of coal it can haul the same load a 
greater distance at a lower speed, at a higher 
speed the coal consumption increases very 
much more rapidly than the speed. For in- 
stance, an engine burning 1,930 pounds of coal 
per hour at a speed of 40 miles per hour 
uses 3,400 pounds per hour in hauling the same 
train 60 miles per hour, nearly doubling the 
coal consumption for a 50 per cent increase of 
speed, and 3,920 pounds at 70 miles per hour. 
These are figures from an actual test, the coal 
consumption varying directly with the horse- 



strong, Groton, Conn. The invention relates p ° wer ex P e n<Jed. In your case however, 10 

miles an hour is not likely to be the economical 



more particularly to protectors such as are 
adapted to be arranged on the steering posts 
of automobiles to protect the drivers. It can be 
easily secured to the steering column of an 
automobile, and fitted with either a transparent 
or a translucent shield to protect the driver. 

WHEEL. — L. Y. Leon, San Juan, Porto Rico. 
The invention relates to wheels for general 
use, the more particular purpose being to pro- 
vide a wheel suitable for a road vehicle, and 
having a considerable degree of resilience due 
to the type of springs employed within the 
wheel and to the manner In which they are 
mounted and kept in position. 

Note. — Copies of any of these patents will 
be furnished by Munn & Co. for ten cents each. 
Please state the name of the patentee, title of 
the invention, and date of this paper. 



speed of the locomotive and it is probable that 
it could cover 100 miles in 5 hours with the 
same or very little more coal than ' it would 
take to cover the same distance in 10 hours. 



NEW BOOKS, ETC. 

Astronomy of the Bible. An Ele- 
mentary Commentary on the As- 
tronomical References of the Holy 
Scripture. By E. Walter Maunder, 
F.R.A.S. New York: Mitchell Ken- 
nerly, 1909. 34 ill. 
Mr. Maunder's attitude toward the celestial 
miracles of the Bible does not differ essentially 
from that of the average non-astronomical 
Christian. He frankly regards the Bible as an 
Inspired utterance. Although he does not hesi- 
tate to present the scientific theories which 
have been advanced to account for such 
miracles as Joshua's Long Day, the Dial of 
Ahaz, and the Star of Bethlehem, he is more 
prone to consider them as divine portents 
rather than as ordinary astronomical occur- 
rences. He constantly reminds us that the 
Scriptures were not intended to teach us the 
physical sciences, for which reason, in his 
i&%A^%r£%^T^W*£ opinion it is almost futile to offer scientific 
books, etc. This will facilitate answering your ques- explanations of Biblical miracles. In the case 
tions. Be sure and give full name and address on every of the Star of Bethlehem, for example, Mr. 





Notes ^^^ 
and Queries. 1 



Bheet. 

Pall hints to correspondents were printed at the head 
of this column in the issue of March 13th or will be 
sent by mail on request. 



out danger of packing and obstructing the rapid 
flow of the merchandise, such as seeds of vari- 
ous kinds. 

AIR-SHIP.— A. E. G. Lubke, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. An object here is to provide a 
ship having an aeroplane and a balloon or gas 
bag connected therewith, together with an 
improved steadying means. A further object 



falls, means permit the cylinder to exhaust, j 
the piston to move downwardly, to allow a 
weight to swing the damper into open posi- 
tion. 

PARALLEL-RULER. — F. W. Sterling, Chi- 
cago, 111. The Invention appertains to draft- 



FEED MECHANISM FOR BORING-MA- 
CHINES. — A. Frey, SchSftland, Switzerland. 
The Inventor provides a mechanism capable 
of being quickly changed for use as a hand 
feed or an automatic feed, and arranged to 
permit convenient changing of the gearing so 



tag instruments, and its purpose is to provide that the feed mechanism for feeding the bor- 



a new and improved parallel ruler, more espe- 
cially designed for the use of navigators and 
other persons, to permit them to accurately and 
quickly transfer parallel lines when translating 
courses on a chart. 

CIGAR-PERFORATOR.— E. F. Hall, Fowler, 
Cal. The improvement is in that class of 
perforators which are provided with a series 
of opposite points or prickers pivoted and ar- 



lng tool may be run at any desired speed ac- 
cording to the nature of the -rock to be 
bored. 



Prime Movers and Their Accessories. 



ROTARY ENGINE. — F. O. Bible, Wilkins- 
burg, Pa. In this case the inventor's desire 
Is to produce an engine in which the various 
ranged convergently in such manner that when ' parts are designed to permit of exact adjust- 
the tip of a cigar is pressed down between them j ment for controlling the motive fluid to per- 
they enter the same and thus form lateral mit of utilizing the expansive force of the 
holes which assist in producing an easy draft. I fluid to a greater or less degree, and has had 
WINDOW-VENTILATOR.— G. W. Stein, in view the construction of an engine which 
Chicago, 111. The inventor provides a device will permit of the use of as many cylinders as 
in which good ventilation is secured, while at desired. 



Maunder is inclined to accept the miracle ; 
and although he presents -the usual theories of 
a conjunction of planets, a comet, and a nova, 
to account for the apparition, he regards the 
(12127) A. C. Co. asks: We would Star of Bethlehem as a specially devised mlr- 

like to get an approximate idea of the amount acle for the guidance of the Magi. 

of coal burned by the average ocean-going STATISTICAL AND Chbonoloqical History 

vessel of 700 tons net registry, drawing from 

9 to 15 feet, that is to say, the amount of 

coal per hour burned In producing a speed 

of from 10 to 15 knots. A. It is impossible 

for us to give a reply to your question equally 

accurate and general for all cases, for the 

reason that coal consumption .per horse-power 

varies so much with the efficiency of both 

engines and boilers, and horse-power for a 

given speed varies so much with the lines of 

the boat. For instance, a 700-ton yacht with 

fine lines might be driven at a speed of 10 

knots with half the horse-power required to 

give the same speed to a cargo boat of the 

same displacement ; and, as the boiler and 

engines of the yacht might easily have 50 per 

cent higher efficiency (say 30 per cent effi- 
ciency as compared with 20 per cent) the yacht 

might make the same speed as the cargo boat 

with one-third of the latter's coal consumption. 

Again, every steamship has its maximum econ- 
omical speed; and whereas a given quantity 

of coal may drive it a little greater distance 

at a lower speed, any attempt to drive it at a 

higher speed will cause an increase of coal 

consumption out of all proportion to the in- 
crease of speed gained. There might therefore 

be a great difference between coal consumption 

at 10 and at 15 knots, and a boat of which 

the former was the economical speed might 

be unable to achieve the latter with any rea- 
sonable coal consumption, if at all. Although 

you only ask for an approximate idea, we must 

therefore make this reservation to show you ' gives a new point of view, and serves to bring 

how widely an average figure may vary from into relief certain features which are apt to be 

that of your particular case. If you gave ton- 1 overlooked by the professional naval writer. 

nage, economical speed, and horse-power, we ' Although the battles of the Nile and Copen- 

could give a fairly close figure for average hagen receive adequate notice, the Battle of 

lines, but knowing neither lines nor horse- Trafalgar naturally takes the first place. Mr. 



op the United States Navy, 1775- 
1907. By Robert Wilden Nesser, 
Fellow of Yale/ College. In two 
volumes. The Macmillan Company, 
1909. Quarto; 650 pp. Price, ?12 
net. 
In spite of the many books that have been 
written on the history of the United States 
navy, it is the opinion of the author that the 
record is yet incomplete. Hence he has under^ 
taken the task of historian upon a scale of 
research and completeness that leave nothing 
to be desired ; going back as far as possible to 
the original authorities, and — a most important 
feature — giving these authorities in the text. 
The completed work will be divided into Ave 
parts. The first three parts, here offered, are 
complete in themselves, and contain data con- 
cerning every engagement, capture, expedition, 
or other achievement of the navy prior to 
January 1st, 1907. The remainder of the 
work may be considered as supplementary. This 
is a monumental work carried out with great 
fidelity. 

Nelson and Other Naval Studies. By 

James R. Thursfleld, M.A. New 

York: E. P. Dutton & Co. 374 pp. 

Price, ?4. 

Unlike so much of the literature of the life 

of Nelson, the present work was written by a 

civilian. The fact of his reviewing the life of 

a naval officer from the outside, as it were, 



302 



Scientific American 



October 23, 1909. 



Fhursfield's idea of the elan of attack at 
rrafalgar differs somewhat from those com- 
monly accepted; but after reading what he has 
to say, the Impression Is deepened that at 
Trafalgar, as In many other fights of that day, 
the plan of battle as outlined before the flght 
was greatlyi modified to suit the exigencies of 
the hour. This work will possess a particular 
interest for American readers, because so large 
a portion is devoted to an appreciative survey 
of the achievements of John Paul Jones. Mr. 
Thursfleld Is the first English writer of prom- 
inence to remove the stigma which was at- 
tached to Jones's name by the calumnious 
writers of his day, and .reveal him as the 
admirable character that he was. One of the 
most valuable chapters is that in which full 
justice is done to Admiral Duncan, the hero of 
Camperdown, whose exploits and general pro- 
fessional ability seem never to have received 
adequate recognition until late in his career. 

Second Appendix to the Sixth Edition 
of Dana's System .or Mineralogy. 
By Edward S. Dana and William E. 
Ford. New York: John Wiley & 
Sons, 1909. 8vo.; 114 pp. Price, 
11.50. 
During the ten years of mineraloglcal in- 
vestigation which this appendix covers, a large 
amount of material has been published. An 
evidence of this is to be found in the two hun- 
dred new names which are given in the classi- 
fied list in the Introduction. About sixty of 
these new names on account of the complete- 
ness of their descriptions seem to have a war- 
rant for their acceptance as new species. The 
other names* - are either of imperfectly described 
minerals or variety names of well-recognized 
species.. The descriptions of the new species 
included in this book are given concisely but 
completely. It was found, however, imprac- 
ticable to follow the plan adopted in the Sys- 
tem and the First Appendix of recalculating 
all the angles and crystal constants of the 
new species. This has been done in a few 
cases, but in the majority of the descriptions 
the figures of the authors have been accepted 
without verification. In the cases of some 
of the new species with complex crystals it 
has been impossible to give the complete lists 
of the forms identified upon them. The method 
followed has been to give the more common 
and prominent forms and to indicate the num- 
ber of those not listed. 

The Making of Species. By Douglas 
Dewar, B.A., and Frank Finn, B.A. 
New York: John Lane Company, 
1909. 8vo.; 400 pp. Price, $2.50, 
postage extra. 
The authors' aim In writing this book has 
been twofold. In the first place, they have 
attempted to place before the general public 
in simple language a true statement of the 
present position of biological science, and in 
the second place they have endeavored to fur- 
nish the scientific men of the day with food 
for reflection. As the British nation seems to 
he slowly but surely losing, through its con- 
servatism, the commercial supremacy it had 
the good fortune to gain during the last cen- 
tury, so is it losing, through the unwillingness 
of any of her scientific men to keep abreast 
of the times, that scientific supremacy which 
she gained in the middle of the last century 
by the labors of Charles Darwin and Alfred 
Russell Wallace. It is not among Englishmen 
but among Americans and Continentals that 
the world has to look for advanced scientific 
ideas. The authors fear that this book will 
come as a rude shock to many scientific men. 
What they attack is not Darwinism, but that 
which Is erroneously - called Neo-Darwinism. 
Neo-Darwinism is a pathological growth on 
Darwinism which, we fear, can be removed 
only by a surgical operation. The book is a 
beautifully printed one and will doubtless in- 
terest all naturalists. 

The Elementaby Principles of Indus- 
trial Drawing. By George Jepson. 
Oblong- 12mo.; 28 pp.; 11 plates. 
The aim of this little book is to present the 
subject of Industrial drawing, so that a stu- 
dent after he has become familiar with its 
contents, will have mastered all the essential 
principles as applied to mechanical and archi- 
tectural drawing. While the book presents 
all the principles of Industrial drawing, It Is 
not a graded course of lessons, although if 
desired an elementary or more advanced 
course can be compiled from its contents. 
The author is an instructor in descriptive 
geometry, machine drawing, and shop work in 
the Massachusetts Normal Art School, and 
was for many years master of the Evening 
Science School of the city of Boston. The 
book appears to be an excellent one. 

Hendricks's Commercial Register of 
the United States for Buyers and 
Sellers. New York: Samuel E. 
Hendricks Company, 1909. Quarto; 
1220 pp. Price, $10. 
This is the eighteenth annual edition of 
Hendricks's Commercial Register of the United 
States. It is a complete and reliable annual 
index of industries, containing over 350,000 
names and addresses of buyers and 33,000 
business classifications. Full lists are given of 
manufacturers and dealers In everything em- 
ployed in the manufacture of material, ma- 
chinery, and apparatus used in these vast 
industries, from the raw material to the manu- 
factured article and from the producer to the 
consumer. It is indispensable as a work of . 



reference for the architect, engineer, contrac- 
tor, manufacturer, jobber, retailer, exporter, 
purchasing agent, and for the railroad ma- 
chine shop, foundry, mill, factory, mine, and 
plantation. We have occac'oi? to use several 
copies of this book, and i'_ answers a vast 
number of our inquiries for manufacturers. 
It Is a book which we can thoroughly com- 
mend. 



Legal Notices 



PATENTS 



1NVENTOBS are invited to communicate with 
Hni & Co., 301 Broadway, New York, or 
625 F Street, Washington, D. C. in regard 
to securing valid patent protection for their in- 
ventions, Trade-Marks and Copyrights 
registered. Design Patents and Foreign 
Patents secured. 

A Free Opinion as to the probable patenta- 
bility of an Invention will be readily given to any 
inventor furnishing us with a model or sketch and 
a brief description of the device in qnestion. All 
communications are strictly confidential. Our 
Hand-Rook on Patents will be sent free on 
request. 

Oars is the Oldest agency for seeming patents i 
it was established over sixty years ago. 

MUNN & CO., 361 Broadway, New York 

Branch Office, 626 F St., Washington, D. C, 



INDEX OF INVENTIONS 

For which Letters Patent of the 

United States were Issued 

(or the Week Ending 

October 12, 1909, 

AND BACH BE A HI NO THAT DATE 

[See note at end of list about copies of these patents.] 



Abdominal support, J. 8. Allred 

Advertising device, C. A. Myers , 

Aeroplane, C, W. Cheney • 

All brake system, Ot E. Congdon. 

Air compressor, J. H. Daiiey 

Air compressor, B. J. Rohrbacher. 

Air compressor, A. Neumann 

Air cushion seat, D. B. O'Kelly . . 

Air ships, propeller mechanism for, C. M. 

Lee 

Alfalfa shredder, W. B. Kraft 

Anchor, ground, Simpson & Pranchot. ....... 

Animal trap, Dunn & Vought 

Animal trap, H. M. Voter 

Annealing furnace, F. H. Daniels 

Armor plates and other articles of steel and 

alloys of steel, manufacture of, F. Gio- 

littl 

Ash sieve, D. E. Preston 

Audiphone receivers, magnetic regulator for, 

C. E. Williams 

Auger, earth, F. Palmer 

Automobile, B. A. Alperln ; . . 

Automobile attachment, H. S. Delamere. . 

Axle lubricator, J. N. Rlckards 

Bale tie, H. O. Fry *. 

Bales, cotton marker for, Long & Otldys... 

Balloon, J. A. Steinmetz 

Bank, F. E. Jordan 

Barrels and other like containers, lining for, 

T. Scherf 

Basin plug, wash, J. D. Winfree 

Bearing, roller, H. V. Smith 

Bearing, yielding, S. O. Anker-Holth 

Bearings, means for producing lubricating, 

F. J. Randall 

Bed, S. Ellery 986,873, 

■Bedclothing airing device, A. H. Stetson... 

Bed, cooling, H, W. Hock 

Bed springs, device for tightening wire, F. 

B. Townsend ., — 

Beehive, D. I. Comsa 

Bellows, support, J. Sampere 

Belt cleaner, J. A. Bowen ■ 

Belt cleaner, T. Healey' 

Belt for transmitting power, laminated, 

Gondie & Myers . . . 

Belt gnlde, G. H. Tenpas 

Berth, sleeping-car, P. Rubinovitch 

Bevel, square, and calipers, combined, J. J. 

SzymanBki 

Beverages, manufacturing fermented, B. W. 

Kuhn 

Billiard cue, WV M. Dunn 

Binder and the like, looseleaf, J. H. Hewitt 

Blank feeding device, A. F. Jones 

Blast furnace, E. B. Cook. . ». .' 

Block. See Keel block. 

Blowpipe, J. H. Flower 

Boat plug, J. W. Danf ord 

Boat releasing device, automatic, C. Hunt.. 

Bobbin spindle, C. Jenkins 

Body protector, C. W. ; Fraser 

Boiler check, double valve, Schafer & Hills. 
Boiler furnace, 39. H. Montgomery.......... 

Boiler superheater, steam, F. J; Cole...... 

Bolt puller, E. Blomberg .... ..... 

Book, loose leaf, I* D. Hamacher 

Book support, adjustable, B. T. Phelps. . . . 

Book, triplicate sales, W. G. Wilson 

Boot and shoe cleaner, Predmore & Estell . . 
Boots and shoes, elastic tread for, P. W. 

Pratt , 

Booths or the like, parcel, cash, and wind 

protecting attachment for, J. C. Moore. 

Boring bar, J. J. Steinb'runn 

Boring machine, log, G. H. Lambert 

Boring spindles, outboard bearing for, C. I. 

Shirley 

Bottle' closure, H. W. Maurer 

Bottle holder, Infant's feeding, L. G. Black. 
Bottle, non-reflllable, J. S. Bromhead. .. . . . . 

Bottle opener and cigar cutter, combined, 

J. L. Sommer 

Bottle stopper, E. J. Bricker 

Bowl holding rack, A. Insinger; ;■ 

Box or can, F. Westerbeck 

Box or carton, G. B. Oonley — 

Braided fabric, Thun & Lucke 

Braided fabric and making it, H. Z. Cobb.. 
Braiding machine, R. O. Rahm. .. .936,356, 
Brake applying device, automatic, E. P. 

Jessop 

Brake rod coupling jawB, G. F. Hinkens... 

Bread box, Thompson & Morrison. 

Bread mixing machine, B. Mechini 

Brush for cleaning glasses, hand, O. Beth- 
sold 

Brush, polishing, J. A. Brewer .....:...... 

Brushing machine, shoe, G. E. Russell..,.. 

Buckie, belt. L. M. Rosenberg 

Building construction, O. N. Mueller 



936,752 
936,344 
936,303 
936,415 
936,609 
936,813 
936,932 
936,934 

936,916 
936,783 
936,824 
936,429 
936,836 
936,611 



936,315 
936,737 

936,503 
936,350 
936,595 
936,868 
936,740 
936,882 
936,918 
936,680 
936,780 

936,817 
936,393 
936,485 
936,753 

936,739 
936,874 
936,827 
936,897 

936,958 
936,604 
936,670 
936,297 
936,887 

936,532 

936,830 
936,814 

936,746 

936,328 
936,614 
936,891 
937,001 
936,308 

936,769 
936,312 
936,632 
936,904 
936,442 
936,571 
936,651 
936,412 
93 ,755 
936,448 
936,938 
936,504 
936,662 

936,810 

936,551 

936,955 
936,330 

936,578 
936,467 
936,293 
936,860 

936,678 
936,515 
936,725 
936,841 
936,986 
936,492 
937,021 
936,357 

936,905 
936,453 
936,957 
936,920 

937,019 
936,699 
936,948 
936.B65 
936,342 



Bulb support, F. Gorman 936,446 

Bullet mold, F.X. Putney 936,475 

Bust developer, J. G. Eganhouse. 936,434 

Cabinet, Ironing board, B. A. Stocking. 937,014 

Cabinet, weight, M. C. Brown..... 936,406 

Cables or conductors, machine . for making, 

G. B. Kress : „... . 936,728 

Csbleway.^jwrtable, J. H. Dickinson 936,425 

Calendar pad, H. T. Avery 936,848 

Camera focusing hood, E. P. Comrie ....... 936,307 

Can cover, oil waste, P. Anderson. 936,509 

Can heading machine, G. H. Stewart 936,956 

Cane cutter, L. H. Breaud 936,404 

Caoutchouc and similar substances, appa- 
ratus for washing, F. Kempter... 936,635 

Cape, W. W. Pelton 936.351 

Car and engine retracker, J. I. Ford 936.439 

Car coupling, H. J. Dean 937,023 

Car door, grain, A. J. Denton 936,764 

Car fender, G. H. Carter 936,703 

Car fender, C. T. Koenlgsberg 936,782 

Car fender, H. Simpson 936,953 

Oar squeeze, O. H. Dempsey 936,523 

Car ventilator, railway, J. B. Ward 936,686 

Care, supplemental wheel for motor, A. E. 

Whitney 936,750 

Carbureter, K. Maybach 936,337 

Card holder, O. A. Bremer 936,756 

Carpet fastener, stair, W. A. Price 936,940 

Carpet securing means, M. A. V. Odell 936,347 

Carrier. See Garment carrier. 

Carrying mechanism, R. Rein 936,942 

Casting, machine, Soes & Christlanson, 

936,378, 936,486 
Casting metal pots, etc., mold for, J. Power 936,939 

Cattle guard, G. W. Youngs 936,974 

Cement, process and apparatus for the man- 
ufacture of Portland, C. F. McKenna... 936,555 

Child's chair, J. B. Wallace 936,685 

Chuck, J. A. Leland 936,644 

Chuck for grinding stem ware, A. B. Knight 936,912 

Churn, J. L. Arnold 936,400. 

Churn, J. Mlddlebrook 936,921 

Cigarmaker's table, S. J. Clark 936,411 

Circuit for propagating wave forms, D. O. 

Jackson 936,538 

Clam shell, J. D. Pennewell 936,560 

Clock, J. Petrillo , 936,352 

Closet seat, R. Gunton 936,714 

Cloth cutting machine, A. H. De Voe 936,424 

Clothesline holder, P. Curran 936,420 

Clothesline prop, W. P. Brlggs 936,982 

Clutch electric control, friction, H. M. Aber- 

nethy 936,284 

Coat, R. B. Peary 936,805 

Coating metallic surfaces, O. J. Kirk 936,637 

Cock, bail, H. S. Rumsey 936,742 

Cock, safety, Swimmer & Neelen 936,581 

Coffee free from caffein, obtaining, K. H. 

Wimmer 936,392 

Coil support, I. L. Griffith 936,622 

Combination and bath fitting, Martin & 

Brams 936,791 

Commutator brush, V. G. Apple... 936,692 

Computing and recording machine, W. H. 

MeFarland 936,652 

Concentrating apparatus, G. F. Rendall 936,563 

Concrete burial vaults, mold for casting, O. 

M. Brown 936,861 

Concrete mixing machine, W. M. Swing.... 936,875 

Concrete railway tie, J. P. Donovan 936,428 

Concrete railway ties, apparatus for mold- 
ing, J. P. Donovan 937,096 

Concrete steel constructions, fixture support 

for, L. P. Alford- 936,690 

Concrete walls, mold construction for, J. 

Mueller 936,798 

Concrete work in the water, building, B. H. 

Kirk 936,638 

Condenser, J: Anderson 936,397 

Controller, automatic, F. R. Fishback 936,878 

Conveyer, B. M. Steele 936,745 

Conveyer,' C. W. Levalley 936,917 

Cooking utensil, F. A.' Musser 936,343 

Copper from cuprous residues, recovery of, 

D. Orispo . . . 936,762 

Cotton chopper, A. D. Baker 936,693 

Crate and protector, W. T. Claycomb 936,984 

Crate, foldable shipping, B. C. Rollins 936,946 

Crate, folding, B. Benson 936.696 

Crate, folding shipping, J. BT Porter et al. 936,735 

Cream dipper, A. C. Butts, Jr 936,757 

Crystallizers, stirrer for, Crozler & Dyer 936,608 

Cuff shaper, S. M. Cole 936,761 

Cultivator, D. P. Deppe 936,765 

Cultivator, H. B. Reynolds 936,943 

Cultivator, F. Upshaw 936,961 

Cultivators and other agricultural imple- 
ments, attachment for riding, C. N. 

Simpson ; 936,823 

Current motor, alternating, F. Eiehberg 936.615 

Curtain fastener, J. Grizzell 936,884 

Curtain holding mechanism, window. Dona- 
hoe & Taylor 936,427 

Curtain roller, H. Tripp 936,387 

Curtain roller and curtain pole support, ex- 
tensible combined, J. W. Thoreau 936,583 

Cuspidor, Gregory & Shumway. 936,774 

Cuspidor, W. J. Helm 936,888 

Cutlery polisher, P. E. Shee 936,371 

Cutting shears, J. R. Seariprht 936,574 

Cycle attachment, motor, H. T. Adams 936,845 

Damper for furnaces, C. G. Atwater ... 936,288 

Deflbrating machine, J. S. Gillies ......936,995 

Dental apparatus, A. Jameson — 936,539 

Dental instrument, W. H. Manning 936,732 

Dental press, F. O. Jaques, Jr 936,633 

Dispensing container, 0. L. Parmenter 936,808 

Dispensing machine, C. M. Jewell .. 936,908 

Display apparatus, H. M. Webster 936,497 

Display rack, J. H. Best 936,855 

Dividers, proportional, A. L. Black.... 936,857 

Dogging device, O, M. Krebs 936,784 

Door fastener, emergency exit, J. B. Han- 
kins 936,718 

Door mat, C. J. Peterson 937,010 

Door, spring? W. H. Jordan 936,908 

Dough forming machine, G. H. Petri, 

936,660, 936,661 

Draft gear, H. T. Krakau 936,547 

Driving and controlling device, W. A. Brauer 936,298 

Dust pan, convertible, A. S. Epperson 936,990 

Dye and making same, orange to red tet- 

razo, A. Schedler 936,367 

Dye, azo, Jahsen & Neelmeier 936,321 

Dye, azo, M. Kahn 936,456 

Dye, azo, O. Schmidt 936.951 

Egg beater, Chase & Milton 936,410 

Electric arc light, F. P. Cobham 936,305 

Electric circuit controller and interrupter, 

O. A. Tucker . 936,584 

Electric circuit interrupter, H. R. Stuart... 936,578 

Electric drill, Duntley & Kimman 936,870 

Electric light bracket, E. I. Drent 936,869 

Electric switch, H. D. Grinnell 936,775 

Electric wiring, molding for, W. H. G. 

Kirkpatrick 936,639 

Electrical circuit breaker, C. Aalborg 936,594 

Electrical coil, M. C. Rypinskl 936,669 

Electrical discharge apparatus, N. J. Neall. 936,656 
Electrical distribution system, F. G. Beetem 937,018 
Electrical oscillations, receiving system for 

high frequency, F. K. Vreeland 93B,684 

Electrical switch, chronometric, J. L. 

Scheuble 936,950 

Electrically operated automatic switch, W. 

A. Lacke .936,329 

Electromagnetic switch, J. D. Ihlder. 936,724 

Electroplating objects, mechanical arrange- 
ment for, W. Pfanhauser 936,472 

Electrotype molds, preparing, G. E. Dunton 938,871 
Elevating and loading mechanism, W. W. 

Brower 936,517 

^Vvator. See Portable elevator. 

Elevator safety appliance, J. T. Albert. . . . 936,285 

Embossing and printing, simultaneously, G. 

H. Marsh 936,335 

Engine frame, internal combustion, TV W. 

Noyes 936.558 

Engine starter, L. Burnham . , 936,700 



Engine starting device, explosive, H. Wayte 936,961 
Engines, beating roll for refining, E. A. 

Jones ...... ,..,... 936,540 

Engines, speed controlling mechanism for 

explosive, Miller & Metcalf 936,795 

Envelop, N. J, Macdonald 936,790 

Explosions, apparatus for utilizing energy 

derived from, W. H. Smyth 936,677 

Explosive engine, W. J. Wright 936 972 

Extension table, E. Tyden 936,494, 936^586 

Fan, spring, D. Robert! 936,668 

Feefc bag, N. P. Abel 936,975 

Peed device, J. H. Adams 937 017 

Fence post, O. M. Reed 935 562 

Fertilizers, making solid, B. F. Halvorsen. 93(1,317 

Fifth wheel, J. A. Burrell 936 983 

Films or flakes, making metallic, 1\ a. ' 

Edison 936,525 

Fire alarm, automatic, C. D. Miller 936 923 

Fire escape, J. H. Thornburg 936,385 

Fire extinguisher, W. A. Staff 936,487 

Fire extinguisher, D. H. Conkling 936,985 

Fire extinguishing apparatus, automatic 

alarm device for, Henley & Crowder. . . 936,889 

Fire' extingalshing syringe, A. Hruby 936,320 

Firearms, combined firing pin and ejector 

for, J. D. Pedersen 936,806 

Pish' stringer device, W. G. Callender 936,701 

Flanging machine, J. Brenzinger 936,598 

Flower pot stand, P. Poy 936,619 

Flue plug and ferrule, combination, J. H. 

_ Gillon : 936,444 

Flushing device for water closet tanks, J. F. 

Young 936,396 

Flushing tank, automatic, Frlel & Crusoe. 936,709 

Folding machine, Adams & Wallace 936,506 

Folding mechanism, S. G. Goss., 936,710 

Folding seat, portable, Wllckerling & Red- 

iske r> 936,502 

Footboard, A. Krutsinger 936,786 

Forming die, 1. H. Hill 936,999 

Fueli handling apparatus, fluid, R. s. 

Mitchell 936,470 

Funiel, J. P. Beatty 936,511 

Purahee for uniformly heating metals, W. 

f- Best ? 936,856 

Furnace or forge, W. Scrimgeour, Tr 936,573 

Furjpaces, flue and valve system for regen- 
erative, J. S. McKennan 936,931 

Furnaces, plant for heating the gas and air 

for combustion in gas, O. Zahn.... 938,844 

Gage «>H support, C. B. Marsh 936.64T 

Game apparatus, W. Kruse 936,785 

Game apparatus, J. Stern, reissue.... 13,025 

Garbage receptacle, M. Oarlucci 936,702 

Garment carrier, O. Rangnow 936,811 

Gas and air, mechanism for the production 

of a constant mixture of, F, W. Wolff. 937,016 

Gas burner, W. V. D. Kelley 937,002 

Gas conduit coupling. H. M. Holton 936,721 

Gas engine, B. B. Halverstadt 936,318 

Gas impregnated liquids, apparatus for dis- 
pensing, M. J. Levin 936,462 

Gas producer, R. B. Kernohan 936,636 

Gate, D. F. Beard 936,290 

Gate, J. W. Hawkins 936,719 

Gate, J. Q. Primm 936,738 

Gate, W. B. Robinson 936,812 

Gear cutting machine attachment, B. J. 

Flatter 936,879 

Gearing, J. W. Belyeu 936,291 

Gearing, J. S. Smart 936,378 

Generators, sludge faucet for carbide gas, 

P. L. H. Sims 936,375 

Glass, apparatus for making sheet or plate, 

J. J. Quertinmont 936,664 

Glass articles, machine for making hollow, 

P. T. Slevert 936,822 

Glass machine, wire, N. Franzen 936,880 

Glass, method and apparatus for making 

wire, J. J. Quertinmont 936,663 

Glass, process and apparatus for making 

wire, J. J. Quertinmont 936,665 

Glass tube cutter, C. E. Skinner 936.674 

Glove pocket, Fields & Sebliri 936,437 

Gold' dredges, collecting means for, T. J. 

Barbour 936,754 

Golf club bag, P. C. Breakspear 936.698 

Grain drill, L. B. Robey , 936,741 

Grain spout, C. L. Gardner 936.772 

Graphite lubricator, F. G. , Wilson . ........ 936.970 

Gramophone, T. H. Macdonald 936.646 

Grease cup, compression. L. W. Durst 936,872' 

Grinding machine, A. C. Warner 937,035 

Grinding milling cutters or similar tools, 

machine for. P. A. Kustner 936.915 

Grinding pan, Mlddleton & Cobbe '. . 936.794 

Gun;' B. H. Searle 936.369 

Guns, hand grip for, F. A. Freeman.. 936,528 

Hammer, power, .W. Graham : . . . 936.316 

Handcuff, M. Mitchell 936,797 

Hanger. See Wire hanger. 

Harriees and warp stop motion, combination, 

Anner & Marnel 936,847 

Harvester, pea, A. McMahon 936,733 

Harvester, potato, J. Lood 936,333 

Hat brim press to form welt edges, C. E. 

Sackett 936.364 

Hat hook, A. M. Hortenbach ...... .... 936.899 

Hay_gatherer, N. Fryman 936.621 

Hay retainer, C. H. Whitney 936,500 

Heat, means for utilizing solar, M. L. 

Severy 937,013 

Heels, making boot and shoe, W. P. Bos- 
worth : 936.295 

Hide supporting device, H. S. Crombie 936,522 

Hoe' seeder, L. A. Saudoe 936.366 

Hoist, portable, Klaus & Gudient 936,911 

Holder, I. Herzfeider 936.777 

Holding attachment, G. P. Schmidt 936.671 

Horn, H. J. KIngsley 936,910 

Horses, ice creeper for, I. R. Whisler. ..... 936,969 

Horseshoe calk, J. E. Dolan 936,988 

Hose cock, H. Vlnette' 936,499 

Hose coupling, N. M. Rosendahl 936,569 

Hose coupling, A. A. Hill ; ."". . 936.627 

Hose Coupling, E. J. Hannold : 938,886 

Hose support, J. W. Fltz Gerald 936,438 

Hot air register, E. C. Pox 936,440 

Hypodermic medication, means for, B. G. 

Strong 937,029 

Ice cream freezer, Thomson & Schmitt 936,384 

Ice/'device for cutting plate, R. H. Kirk... 936,544 
Ice making and harvesting apparatus, plate, 

D. J, Havenstrite ,>. 936,452 

Ice, «. manufacturing and harvesting, R. J. 

Berryman 936.978, 936,979 

Ice, manufacture of artificial, R. J. Berry- 
man 936,977 

Igniters or sparkers, timer for, H. Rose.... 936,564 

Implement holder, S. C. Lawlor 936,460 

Incubator electric alarm, C. L. Kulp 936.914 

index compiling device, W. A. Antilottl. . . 936,287 

Induction motor, S. R. Bergman 936,292 

Induction motor, C. Robinson 936.360 

Insulator, electric J. A. Wells... ...... 936.840 

Internal combustion engine, E. Chapman'. . . 936,409 

Jar holder, W. J. McCallum 936,927 

Jars, device for releasing the caps or covers 

for glass fruit, G. E. Searing 936,575 

Journal box, J. G. Smith......;. 936,675 

Journal box, adjustable, P. J. Joecken.. . . . 936,455 
Journal boxes, means for packing waste in," 

1 L. C. Condlt 936,704 

Junction, wall, floor or other box, D. Con- 
Ian, Jr. 936.705 

Keel block, H. Smoke 936,678 

Kilns, disintegrating and removing annular 

salamanders In nodulizing, A. Brautlgam 936.981 

Knife, K. J. Wilson 936.592 

Knob attachment. A. H. Franklin 936.441 

Knob, glass, G. W- Graham 936.533 

Knockdown box. R. A. Simpson . . . 936.484 

Lacing hook making machine, H. H. Eaton 936,430 
Lacing hook or stud setting machine, H. H. 

Eaton : , 936.431 

Ladder, F. L. Union 936,681 

Ladder and ironing board, combined step, 

L. King ' 936.909 

Lamp, M. I. Cohen 936,521 



October 23, 1900. 



Scientific AmeHcaiv 



303 




FOUR INTERESTING LETTERS 



PEARY 

New York, June 19th, 1908. 

Dear Sir: — In regard to the watches . . . . . . 

furnished me by the Waltham Watch Co. three years 
ago, the behavior of the meantime watches was 
particularly excellent. 

Watches carried by men in charge of different 
parties on the sledge journeys over the sea ice ran for 
weeks without any considerable variation from each 
other. This feature was a very distinct comfort to 
me in making me feel sure of my observations when 
the drift of the ice had carried me far away from all 
dead reckonings. 

Most of these watches are now on Eagle Island, 
Maine, where I am going the end of this week. I 
will endeavor to get them on "to you as soon as 
possible .... Very sincerely, 

(Signed) R. E. Peary, U. S. N. 
Mr. James- W. Appleton. 



WELLMAN 

Washington, D. C, Nov. 27th, 1899. 
American Waltham Watch Co., Waltham Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The nine watches made by you, which 
were carried in the Wellman Polar Expedition, 
proved entirely satisfactory. Two of these were 
injured slightly by the Norwegian sailors in the early 
_winter. The remaining seven were used by me in 
ascertaining time and also positions of latitude and 
longitude. Position of stars computed by the aid of 
these watches could be depended upon to the accuracy 
of a second. Positions of longitude ascertained by 
Julius Payer twenty-five years previously were verified. 

Extreme cold affected the movements but slightly, 
and in no way injured them. After returning to • 
Norway but slight discrepancies were found upon 
comparing with Greenwich time. 

In my judgment these movements are thoroughly 
reliable for any use and in any clime, being thorough- 
ly compensated. Yours truly, 

(Signed) Quirof Harlan, 

Physicist to Wellman Polar Expedition. 



LEFFINGWELL 



The Shackleton Relief Expedition 

BRITISH ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION, I907 

S. Y. "Nimrod." 
LyTTEI/TON, 27th March, 1909. 
Messrs.. R. W. Cameron & Co., Wellington. 

Sir : — Herewith I forward to you, per Purser S. S. 
' ' Maori, ' ' the seven Waltham watches so generously 
loaned to my officers and self by your Company for 
our use in the Antarctic. 

Two of them unfortunately have been damaged. 
One of them by an accident down a crevasse, and the 
other during a sledge journey. 

My officers and I found the watches reliable under 
all conditions. After a time we gained so much con- 
fidence in their rates that we had no hesitation in 
trusting to them when taking observations which 
required time-readings to seconds. 

On their" behalf and my own I beg you will con- 
vey to your Company my thanks for the use of the 
watches. I am, Sir, Yours faithfully, 

(Signed) Fre»P. Evans, Lieut. R< N. R., 
Officer Commanding. 



MR. E. A. Marsh, Waltham Watch Company. The Quadrangle Club, CHICAGO, Dec. 8th, '08. 

Dear Sir;— About three years ago your Company loaned me four of your watches for use on the Anglo-American Polar Expedition. I received 

them from Robins, etc. .Jiere, and yesterday I returned three of them to the same people I wrote to you from the North last summer 

telling of the remarkable performances of these watches and my private Waltham, during a two months' sled trip over the ice. They were compared 
with each other and chronometer corrected by observation nearly every day for a year and rates assigned for the ice trip. Daily comparisons were 
made among the watches on the trip, also, and with the chronometer after our return. The field rates were found to.be practically the same as those 
assigned from the rates during the several months previous to. the field trip. If it were not that all three watches came out the same, I should say 
that the obscure field, rates were accidentally close to the calculated rates. The performance of your watches is emphasized by the fact that Capt. 
Mikkelsen had a hand-made pocket chronometer, made to order in London at a cost of $250.00. On this trip this expensive time-piece varied so 
greatly from the mean of the other watches that it had to be disregarded after the first week. The rates of your watches were changed but a fraction 
of a second, while the Captain's watch increased 35 seconds in its daily rate. 

I took the greatest care in getting the best possible per f ormance from the watches. I wore two myself and insisted that others took good care 
of theirs. The watches were worn night and day next to the skin and every precaution taken to keep their temperature constant. . . . 

Thank you very much for your kindness to us in loaning the watches. Yours, etc., (Signed) E. de K. Leffingwei,i<. 

N. B. — In buying a Waltham Watch always ask your jeweler for one adjusted to temperature and position 



Please mention the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN when writing to advertiser* 



304 



Scientific American 



October 23, 1909. 



Lamp, aseptic deflector, O. C. Werner 936,499 

Lamp attachment, vehicle, A. G. Thomson.. 936,831 

Lamp, blast, L. Schemnitz 936,815 

Lamp bracket, adjustable, C. E. Stevens 936,379 

Lamp, electric, G. L. Van Wart 936,747 

Lamp, incandescent gas, A. Rector. . .'. 936,476 

Lamp, incandescent gas, O. Wiederhold 936,501 

Lamp socket, cluster, H. J. S. Lewis. 936,463 

Lamp socket, cluster, R. B. Benjamin .. 936,512 

Lamp working apparatus, Luce & Sllvernail 937,005 
Lamps, making filaments for electric incan- 
descent, W. von Bolton 936,403 

Latbes, turret tool holder for, 3. Burt 936,301 

Laundry iron, electric, H. C. Newman.... 936,556 

Lead pipe, reinforced, B. P. Wardwell 936,839 

Lens holder, J. B. Schrock 936,368 

Leveling instrument, hydrostatic, J. 3. 

Bunting 936,407 

Lids or covers having beaded rims,- device 

for drawing and pressing, K. Christian. 936,603 

Life saving apparatus, P. Kotlar 936,546 

Lifting Jack, J. E. Crowle 936,309 

Light fixtures, turnkey for, R. M. Bryce 936,518 

Liquid dispensing device, M. M. Marcuse.. 936,334 

Liquids, concentrating, G. W. Chllds 936.760 

Locomotive, O. N. Terry 936.582 

Locomotive boiler, G. Cook .......... 936,607 

Locomotive engine, Cole & Scoville. . . . . 936.413 

Log skidding machine, J. R. McGiffert 936,653 

Logs, machine for making heel, W. P. Bos- 
worth 936.858 

Loom dobby, E. H. Ryon 936.479 

Loom, shuttle changing, E. H. Ryon....... 936.949 

Loom temple, W. H. Kynett 936.459 

Loom terry motion. J. L. Davidson . 936.310 

Loom, weft replenishing, H. N. Arthur 936,510 

Looms, bobbin for filling replenishing, F. 

Dion - , 936,524 

Looms, center selvage mechanism or attach- 
ment for, A. A. Gordon, Jr 936,445 

Looms, thread changing apparatus^ f or, L. 

Jorrand \ 936.324 

Looping machine, C. Holly 936.898 

Hail bag crane, A. H. Stone .*. . 936,489 

Mail box holder, J. H. Fisher 936,527 

Mall pouch catching and delivering means, 

Gnrwitch & Rainey. 936.715 

Malt drying apparatus, W. H. Prins. 937,011, 937,012 

Malt kiln, R. Roth 936,947 

Manifolding pad, E. K. Bottle 936,607 

Mat. See Door mat. 

Match box, automatic, W. A. Carter 936,302 

Mattress and furniture spring, F. J. Mau- 

borgne 936.649 

Measuring instrument, A. H. Lucas 936,731 

Measuring or indicating instrument, C. H. 

Veeder 937.015 

Melting apparatus, Carr & Speer 936,759 

Melting furnace and using the same, Carr & 

Speer 936.758 

Metal, blning, H. E. Sheldon 936,821 

Metal, composite, J. G. Mellen 936.339 

Metal, permanent magnetic, S. E. Gertler. . 936,530 
Metal plate bending machine, T. C. Scheld 936,481 

Metal rod cutting machine, G. H. Scott 936,572 

Metal, treating, F. L. O. Wadsworth 936,389 

Metals, plating, W. Griffith 936,713 

Metals, treating, H. D. Miller 936,650 

Meter seal, Burgest & Londick 936,862 

Microscope gage for fine measurements, H. 

A. Reymlds . . 936,687 

Milking machine, G. E. Jonson 936,907 

Milking machine adjusting device. E. V. 

Gandll ..- 936,771 

Milling double helical toothed wheels, ma- 
chine for, C. Wust-Kunz .-..' ... 936;973 

Mine firing device, T. C. Hallam. 936,885 

Minerals, device for preventing waste of, 

Smith & Kongsli 936,377 

Mining drill, J. R. Place 936,937 

Mltering machine attachment, W. W. Pur- 
sell 936,355 

Mixing apparatus, G. F. Dickson 937,025 

Molding machine, E. H. Ryon. 936.569 

Monogram holder, J. L. Des Laurles 936,766 

Mop, J. F. McLaughlin 936,655, 937.007 

Mortise marking device, C. Sturtz 936,579 

Motor controller, electric, O. F. Shepard ... 936.952 

Mower, 3. T. Fritsche .' 936,881 

Nozzle, spraying, A. B. Hall 936,537 

Nut lock, F. Branne 936.299 

Nut lock, 3. B. Lambeth 936,331 

Nut lock, F. Moser , . 936.553 

Nut lock, D. E. McDonell 936,929 

Oar lock, T. C. Luce 937,004 

Oil and air, apparatus for supplying, heat- 
ing, and burning crude, H. E. Weaver. 936.688 

Oil burner, W. Scrimgeour 936,743 

Oil burner, H. S. Milks 936,922 

Oil waste cleaning apparatus, Orkln & Isaacs 936.657 

Oiler, road, C. M. Haeske . 936,716 

l-para-dialkyIaminoaryl-2-4-diaIkyl-3-oxyme- 

thyl-5-pyrarolone, Stolz & Streitwolf . . . 936,380 
Ore pulverizing and amalgamating appa- 
ratus, R. Luckenbach 936,645 

Ores, amalgamating and separating metallic, 

R. Luckenbach .-.. 937.033 

Outlet or Junction box, C. T. Pratt 936.809 

Oven, continuous baking, S. Jacobson 937.000 

Packing, D. S. Paterson 936.658 

Packing machine, J. Merritt 936.792 

Packing, piston, J. J. Hampson 936,717 

Paddle wheel, feathering. 3. Rourke 936.478 

Padlock, L. A. E. C. Byrne 936,863 

Paint, varnish, and finishes, removing, J. M. 

Wilson 936.842 

Pamphlet coverer, G. Sagne 936,480 

Paper, apparatus for protecting commercial, 

E. E. Angell ...936.398 

Paper bag, M. Vierengel 936,588 

Paper box machines, paste applying mech- 
anism for, A. W. Mitchell 936.796 

Paper feeding machine. T. C. Dexter 937.024 

Paper, marked, L. 3. Tronnstine 936.959 

Paper, protecting commercial, E. E. Angell. 936.399 
Pavement and making the same, J. C 

Travtlla 936,493 

Pedal action, player grand, Hattemer & 

Knhle 936 998 

Pedal mechanism. A. G. Gulbransen 936.447 

Pen and pencil holder, pocket, J. P. Randall 936 941 

Pencil making machine, R. H. Howard 936,722 

Pencils and the like, thumb rest for, S. O. 

Donovan 936.868 

Percussive machine and tool. W. Mauss. ... 936.550 

Phonograph attachment, L. H. Hays 936.534 

Phonographic reproducer. B. *B. Smith 936,826 

Photographer's light refractor, W. C. Far- 
rand , 926707 

Photographic apparatus, H. B. Jordan 936 323 

Piano pedal, automatic, 3. W. Darly, Jr. . . 936 763 

Piano, self playing, Long & Tappe 936 788 

Piano, self playing, E. B. Bartlett 936 851 

Piano sonndlng board, F. B. Long 936.789 

Piling, sheet, A. A. Friestedt 936.529 

Pipe, cigar holder, etc., J. R. Perry. 9^6.734 

Pipe coupling, train, W. M. Hiler 936 894 

Pipe expanding tool. B. F. Wardwell 926 838 

Pipe slip joint, C. D. Milne 93«469 

Pine tapping machine. W. B. Ford 936.618 

Pine wrench. A . A . Patton 936 804 

Pitcher, P. Pollard 936.938 

Planers and other machines, electrical con- 
trolling means for, A. P. Steckel 936.577 

Planers, feed roll controlling mechanism 

for wood, H. A.. Perkins 936.659 

Planers, lathes, etc., cutting tool for, C. R. 

Middleton o,nA 793 

Plant protector. W. L. Baldridge '.', 936.401 

Plant support, W. S. Beasley pw J02 

Planter, ' onion seed, B. V. Garwood 936.883 

Planters, differential dropper mechanism for 

corn, F. P. Mnrphey 9R« 471 

Plow, 3. W. Newton 936.345 

Plow, J. Brey 936.599 

Plow and e'anter, combined lister, Shearer 

& KIrlln 936 48.3 

Plow attachment, K. R. Van Winkle 936 962 

Plow draft attachment, C. F. Strnad 936.829 

Plow, gang, J. 0. FJarli 936,769 




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A SIMPLE METHOD OF TEACHING EX- 
PERIMENTAL PHYSICS. 
{Continued from page 293.) 
taneously. The needle traces an undulat- 
ing line which cuts the base line in a 
series of points whose distances from the 
zero point are proportional to 1, 4, 9, 25, 
etc., .that is, to the squares of the times. 
In this way the laws of falling bodies can 
be verified to within 1 per cent. This is 
a . much closer approximation than can 
be obtained with Atwood's or Morin's ap- 
paratus, with which the beginning and 
end of the fall cannot be determined 
very accurately. 

In other experiments the drum is 
driven by a cord, passing over the pulley 
and a grooved wheel 6 inches in diam- 
eter, attached to a simple driving clock, 
such as is used to turn a spit. With 
this arrangement the gradual diminu- 
tion of the amplitude of succesive oscilla- 
tions of the pendulum, and the more 
rapid diminution brought about, by at- 
taching to the pendulum a paddle dip- 
ping into water, can be studied. The 
isochromism of small oscillations can be 
shown by giving the drum a uniform 
velocity of rotation, by means of the 
driving clock or of a weight which is 
stopoed after it has fallen a certain dis- 
tance. Then the base line and the undu- 
lations having been traced as before, the 
wave length, or distance between con- 
secutive intersections of the two lines, is 
found to be constant, no matter what the 
amplitude or height of the wave may- be, 
provided that it is small. 

Chassagny's apparatus for compound- 
ing vibrations in the same plane (Fig. 2) 
comprises two wheels mounted on paral- 
lel shafts. The first wheel is turned by 
a crank and drives- the other by means 
of a belt. The ends of a fine violin string 
are attached to pegs inserted in the faces 
of the Wheels at unequal distances from 
their centers, and the middle part of the 
violin string, which is kept taut by a 
spring, passes round a pulley, which 
turns freely on a vertical rod, attached 
rigidly to the horizontal axle of the nave 
of a bicycle wheel mounted in bearings. 
When the crank is turned both wheels 
revolve, and the horizontal' displacement 
of the pulley, at any instant, is equal to 
the algebraic sum of the horizontal dis- 
placements of the two pegs. The move- 
ment of the pulley is followed accurately 
by a writing point which is attached to 
the other end of the bicycle nave. "Phis 
point presses against a strip of smoked 
paper wrapped round a drum, which is 
turned by the engagement of a toothed 
wheel on its shaft with an endless screw 
on the crankshaft. The amplitudes of 
the two vibrations whose combined effect 
is sought are varied by varying the dis- 
tances of the pegs from the axes of the 
two wheels; the phases are varied by set- 
ting one wheel, at the start, more or less 
in advance of the other by means of 
pointers attached to the wheels and fixed 
graduated circles behind them; the 
periods are varied by employing wheels 
of diameters proportiqnal to the periods 
desired. For example, two wheels of 
nearly equal diameters give a graphical 
record of the phenomena of "beats." 

Vibrations in mutually perpendicular 
planes are combined by means of an ap- 
paratus based on the same principle 
(Fig. 3). The resultant curves are traced 
on smoked glass so arranged before a 
lantern that the curves can be immediate- 
y projected on a screen and explained 
and studied at leisure, with a thorough- 
ness that is not possible with the evanes- 
cent projections of Lissajous's figures 
made in the usual way, by reflecting a 
pencil of light from mirrors attached to 
tuning forks. 

Chassagny's apparatus for the study of 
refraction consists of a glass globe sup- 
ported by fixing Its horizontal neck in a 
copper sleeve. If the neck is regarded as 
one pole of the globe, the opposite 'pole 
is indicated by an interruption in a cop- 
per meridian, and the equator is gradu- 
ated in intervals of five degrees. Water 
is poured into a funnel attached to the 
upper side of the neck until its surface 
(Concluded on page 305.) 



Please mention the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN when writing to advertiser* 



October 23, 1909. 



Scientific American 



305 



Home-Made 
Experimental Apparatus 



In addition to the following articles, tbe 
Scientific -American Supplement has published 
innumerable papers of immense practical value, 
of which over 17,000 are listed in a carefully 
prepared catalogne, which will be sent free of 
charge to any address. Copies of the Scientific 
American Supplement cost 10 cents each. 

If there is any scientific, mechanical, or en' 
gineering subject on which special Information 
is desired, some papers will be found in this 
catalogue, in which it is fully discussed by 
competent authority. 

A few of the many valuable articles on tbe 
making of experimental apparatus at borne are 
given in the following list: 

ELECTRIC LIGHTING EOS AMATEURS. 
Tbe article tells bow a small and simple ex- 
perimental installation can be set up at home. 
Scientific American Supplement 1551. 

AN ELECTRIC CHIME AND HOW IT KAY 

BE CONSTRUCTED AT HOME, is described in 
Scientific American Supplement 1566. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN ELECTRIC 
THERMOSTAT is explained in Scientific Ameri- 
can Supplement 1566. 

HOW TO HAKE A 100-MILE WIRELESS 
TELEGRAPH OUTFIT is told by A. Frederick 
Collins in Scientific American Supplement 1605. 

A SIMPLE TRANSFORMER FOR AMA- 
TEUR'S USE is so plainly described in Scien- 
tific American. Supplement 1572 that anyone can 
make it. 

A i/s-H.-F. ALTERNATING CURRENT DY- 
NAMO. Scientific American Supplement 1558. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF A SIMPLE PHO- 
TOGRAPHIC AND MICRO-PHOTOGRAPHIC 
APPARATUS is simply explained in Scientific 
American Supplement 1574. 

A SIMPLE CAMERA-SHUTTER MADE OUT 
OF A PASTEBOARD BOX, PINS, AND A 
RUBBER BAND Is the subject of an article in 
Scientific American Supplement 1578. 

HOW TO MAKE AN AEROPLANE OR GLID- 
ING MACHINE is explained in Soientiflo Ameri- 
can Supplement 1582, with working drawings. 

EXPERIMENTS WITH A LAMP CHIMNEY. 
In this article it is shown how a lamp chimney 
may serve to Indicate the pressure in the in- 
terior of a liquid ; to explain the meaning of 
capillary elevation and depression; to serve as a 
hydraulic tournique, an aspirator, and intermit- 
tent siphon; to demonstrate the ascent of liquids 
in exhaustive tubes; to illustrate the phenomena 
of the bursting bladder and of the expansive 
force of gases. Scientific American Supplement 
1583. 

HOW A TANGENT GALVANOMETER CAN 
BE USED FOR MAKING ELECTRICAL MEAS- 
UREMENTS Is described in Scientific American 
Supplement 1584. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN INDEPEN- 
DENT INTERRUPTER. Clear diagrams giving 
actual dimensions are published. Scientific 
American Supplement 1615. 

AN EASILY MADE HIGH FREQUENCY AP- 
PARATUS WHICH CAN BE USED TO OB- 
TAIN EITHER D'ARSONVAL OR OUDIN CUR- 
RENTS is described in Scientific American 
Supplement 1618. A plunge battery of six cells, 
a two-inch spark induction coil, a pair of one- 
pint Leyden jars, and an inductance coil, and all 
the apparatus required, most of which can be 
made at home. 

SIMPLE WIRELESS TELEGRAPH SYSTEMS 
are described in Scientific American Supple- 
ments 1363 and 1381. 

THE LOCATION AND ERECTION OF A 100- 
MILE WIRELESS TELEGRAPH STATION is 
clearly explained, with the help of diagrams, 
in Scientific American Supplement 1622. 

THE INSTALLATION AND ADJUSTMENT 
OF A 100-MILE WIRELESS TELEGRAPH OUT- 
FIT, Illustrated with diagrams, Scientific Ameri- 
can Supplement 1623. 

THE MAKING AND THE USING OF A 
WIRELESS TELEGRAPH TUNING DEVICE, 
Illustrated with diagrams, Scientific American 
Supplement 1624. 

HOW TO MAKE A MAGIC LANTERN, Scien- 
tific American Supplement 1546. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN EDDY KITE. 
Scientific American Supplement 1555.' 

THE DEMAGNETIZATION OF A WATCH Is 
thoroughly described in Scientific American Sup- 
plement 1561. 

HOW A CALORIC OR HOT AIR ENGINE 
CAN BE MADE AT HOME Is well explained, 
with tbe help of illustrations, in Scientific 
American Supplement 1573. 

THE MAKING OF A RHEOSTAT Is outlined 
in Scientific American Supplement 1584. 

Good articles on SMALL WATER MOTORS 
are contained in Scientific American Supplement 
1494, 1048, and 1406. 

HOW AN ELECTRIC OVEN CAN BE MADE 
Is explained in Scientific American Supplement 
1472. 

THE BUILDING OF A STORAGE BATTERY 
is described in Scientific American Supplement 
1433. 

A SEWING-MACHINE MOTOR OF SIMPLE 
DESIGN is described in Scientific American Sup- 
plement 1210. 

A WHEATSTONE BRIDGE, Scientific Ameri- 
can Supplement 1595. 

Good articles on INDUCTION COILS are con- 
tained in Scientific American Supplements 1514, 
1622, and 1527. Full details are given so that 
the coils can readily be made by anyone. 

HOW TO MAKE A TELEPHONE Is described 
In Scientific American Supplement 966. 

A MODEL STEAM ENGINE is tboroughly de- 
scribed in Scientific Americ-n Supplement, 1527. 

HOW TO MAKE A THERMOSTAT is ex- 
plained in Scientiflo American Supplements 1561, 
1563, and 1566. 

ANEROID BAROMETERS, Scientific American 
Supplements 1500 and 1554. 

A WATER BATH, Scientific American Supple- 
ment 1464. 

A CHEAP LATHE UPON WHICH MUCH 
VALUABLE WORK CAN BE DONE forms tbe 
subject .of an article contained in Scientific 
American Supplement 1562. 

Each number of tbe Soientiflo American Sup- 
plement costs 10 cents by mall. 
Order from your newsdealer or from 

MUNN & CO., Inc., 361 Broadway, New York 



attains the level of the break In the meri- 
dian. The laws of refraction and total 
reflection can then be studied by direct- 
ing luminous pencils toward the center 
of the globe, in the equatorial plane, and 
viewing them with the eye placed in the 
same plane. 

In his electroscope (Fig. 4) Chassagny 
has made use of the fact that platinized 
glass is sufficiently _ transparent to allow 
objects to be seen clearly through it and 
yet reflects bright images of objects 
nearer the eye. A vertical and rigid 
strip of copper and a flexible strip of 
aluminium foil are suspended from a cop- 
per rod and inclosed in a case of which 
two opposite sides are of glass and the 
rest of metal. The rod carries a charg- 
ing disk at its upper end and is insu- 
lated by passing through a block of paraf- 
fin, which rests on the top of the case. 
One of the glass sides is platinized, and 
outside it is placed a graduated quadrant 
which is seen by reflection, while the de- 
flected strip of aluminium is seen through 
the glass. • 

Chassagny 's galvanometer (Pig. 5) is 
inclosed in a wooden case, which is at- 
tached to the wall. In a strong magnetic 
field, formed by placing the like poles 
of two horizontal horseshoe magnets al- 
most in contact with each other, is sus- 
pended a coil of wire of electrolytic cop- 
per. The- intensity of the field is further 
increased by a soft iron, cylinder, sup- 
ported independently inside the coil. A 
large mirror, attached to the coil, reflects 
the image of a lamp to a screen, where' 
the movements of the spot of light can be 
followed by' the whole class. The gal- 
vanometer is provided with three shunts. 

In Chassagny's apparatus for the study 
of electromagnetic induction (Fig. 6), a 
coil of wire is attached, with its plane 
vertical, to one end of a lever which can 
turn round a horizontal axis, and is bal- 
anced by a counterpoise on the other end. 
A vertical horseshoe magnet, with its 
poles directed upward, is placed so that 
the coil can be brought between the poles, 
or raised above them,, by turning the 
lever on its axis. ' The positive and nega- 
tive currents produced by . these move- 
ments are indicated by a galvanometer 
connected with the coil. An alternating 
current is produced by allowing the lever 
to oscillate freely. Other experiments in 
induction may be made by sending 
through the coil a current from a battery. 

M. Chassagny has devised a number of 
other -ingenious instruments, including a 
very practical rheostat, a eudiometer, a 
baroscope, etc. 




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degree, is always die same. 10c 
each, $1 a doz. If your stationer 
will not supply you— write to us. 



L & C. HARDTMUTH, Est. 1790, 34 E. 23d St., New York 



THE MIDDLE WEST NUMBER 

To most Americans the Mississippi Valley and the rich country that spreads outward from either of its 
shores is farmland — a country which may well be regarded not only as the granary of the United States, 
but of a large portion of the world -as well. / 

The Middle West is morte than this. It is a country of wonderful engineering development and achieve- 
ment, wonderful because of the enormous scale on which its industrial works have been planned. 

On December 11th, 1909, the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN will issue a number devoted entirely to this 
Middle West region, a number which will set forth broadly and lucidly not only the agricultural interests of 
that region, but also those larger engineering undertakings which are destined to transform the Middle 
West, in part at least, into a manufacturing territory. 

With that object in view the Middle West Number will publish articles on the following subjects: 

I. THE CHICAGO AMD GULF WATERWAY An illustrated description of Chicago's drainage 

canal, an engineering work which stands without a parallel in tbe world. 

II. CHICAGO AS A RAILROAD CENTER. — Very few Americans realize that Chicago is the 
greatest railroad center in .the world, and that it may be likened to a great hub from which radiate 
the spokes of American transportation. 

in. THE WONDERFUL GRAIN TRADE OF CHICAGO.— Chicago is an enormous wheat bin, into 
which much of the grain raised in the middle West is poured. The conveying and handling of that 
huge amount of grain has necessitated the erecting and constructing of ingenious machinery and 
elevators. 

IV. SHIPPING ON THE GREAT LAKES Most of the iron ore that Is now smelted in Penn- 
sylvania is mined in the middle West. To transport it to the blast furnaces of the East at a cost 
which will enable American steel makers to compete with foreign steel makers, it has been necessary 
to devise a new kind' of lake transportation. Ships of 10,000 and 12,000 tons burden have been con- 
structed which convey ore at small coet through the Great Lakes, and which are without a counterpart 
anywhere in the world. 

" V. THE HANDLING AND SHIPMENT OF IRON ORE.— The above-mentioned fact that iron ore 
is mined in the middle West and smelted in the East has necessitated not only the construction of 
special freight-carrying steamers, but also the designing of special machinery for loading and unload- 
ing the ore from the steamers. 

VI. FREIGHTING ON THE MISSISSIPPI— The Mississippi is the great natural waterway of 
the middle West. It places the cities along its banks in direct water-communication with every port 
in the world. That is why freighting on the Mississippi is a more important industry than most of 
us may realize. 

VII. THE STEEL INDUSTRY. — Although the steel Industry is still centered In Pennsylvania, 
the scene of its activity is gradually shifting. One of the greatest steel plants in the world is that 
which has been built at Gary. It is safe to say that nowhere else in the world will be found a 
plant so remarkably equipped and so efficient. 

VLTI. THE FREIGHT SUBWAY SYSTEM .OF CHICAGO.— Chicago can boast of a rational sys- 
tem of handling freight by means of subways. Freight is carried from the railway car directly to 
tbe warehouse by means- of tunnels aggregating sixty miles in length. 

IX. THE WATER SUPPLY OF CHICAGO.— Chicago's source of water Is Lake Michigan. The 
city is supplied .with water by means of a tunnel which extends- two miles out into the lake. 

X. RECLAIMING ARID LANDS. — The United States Government has under way many Irrigation 
projects for the purpose of reclaiming lands which are arid, but which will blossom if properly 
watered. ■ 

XL HARVESTING THE GRAIN OF THE MIDDLE WEST. — Farms that cover not acres bat 
square, miles, crops that aggregate not simply bushels, but car-loads, have rendered it necessary to 
plant and harvest on an unprecedented scale in the middle West. The ingenious agricultural ma- 
chinery which has been designed to cope with these peculiar conditions is described and illustrated. 

The Middle West Number will be more than twice the size of the regular SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. 
It will be lavishly illustrated. It will be contained in a colored cover which strikingly depicts Chicago's 
grain elevators at work. Order from your newsdealer or from 

MVNN 6. COMPANY, Inc.. 361 Broadway. New York City 



THE LATESY SUBMARINES OF THE 
UNITES STATES NAVY. 

- (Continued from page 296.) 
merged condition, certain valves in the 
interior of the boat are opened. This 
allows the water from the sea to run Into 
great tanks built within the boat, and 
thus virtually sink her. These tanks are 
closely gaged, so that just the required 
amount of water is taken in. Under 
normal conditions, when the boat is at 
rest with the ballast tanks filled, she will 
have a few hundred pounds reserve 
buoyancy, which is represented by the 
top of her conning tower protruding 
above the water. If desired, this buoy- 
| ancy may be entirely .destroyed by ad- 
mitting a small additional amount of 
water, equal in volume to the volume of 
that part of the conning tower above 
water. While in the submerged condi- 
tion, all communication with the outside 
atmosphere is necessarily cut off. The 
crew, usually about fifteen men, then 
breathes the air contained in the body 
of the boat. The amount of air origi- 
nally contained within the hull Is suffi- 
cient to support life with comfort for at 
least twenty-four hours. But, in addition 
to the air thus contained, the boat car- 
ries a large supply of compressed air in 
steel flasks, which, If used for breathing 
purposes, would be sufficient for a num- 
ber of days. 

After having brought the boat to the 
submerged condition in the manner 
(.Continued on page SOS.) 





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Pleate mention the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN when writing to advertiser* 



3°6 



Scientific American 



October 23, 1909. 



Classified Advertisements 

Advertising in this column is 75 cents a line. No less 
four nor more than ten -lines accepted. Couhl 
seven w to tbe line. All orders mnst be accom- 

panied by a reml Farther Information sent on 

request. 

BEAD THIS COLUMN CAREFULLY.— Ton will And 
inquiries for of articles numbered In 

consecutive order. H you manufacture these goods 
write us at once and we will send you tbe namaand 
addreBS of the party desiring the information. There 
Is no charge for this service. In every case it is 
necessary to si e the number of- tbe inquiry. 
Where manufacturers do not respond promptly the 
inquiry may be repeated. 

HUNN & CO.. Inc. 



BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES. 

WILL FURNISH capital for promoting good patent, 
franchise for public utility, or other good enterprise 
Must come well recommended. Address P. L. Gallagher 
Prudential Building, Newark, N. J. 

Inquiry No. 886S.— Wanted to bay nlckeloid for 
buttons. 

MANUFA BS.-Let me tell yon what a for- 

tune I have for yon. I have a new patent manure 
spreader which I will sell at a reasonable price 

to any business man or to factories. It is both simple 
and practical It is built in 70-inch side and works 
to perfection. If interested, write personally to G. G. 
Haisman, Kaxnrax, Iowa, 

Inquiry No. 891 . For manufacturers of "Wvdt's 
Klectro-Catalytic Sparking Ping." 

MANUFACTURERS, CAPITALISTS - I will sell 
outright or manufacture on royalty a most valuable 
Invention. For full partlcul address M. R. Scbnltz, 
Southampton, N. T 

A RARE OPPORTUNITY se ts itself for a high 
class salesman to handle an article of utility needed on 
everystreet, In every bo eand toreas well as halls and 
churcnes. Substantial oommisslonsor straight purchase 
plan. Standard Chicago, 9 W. Michigan St., Chicago. 

Inquiry No. 8960. -For tbe address of the Wind- 
sor Mfg. Co.. manufacturers of waterproof collars and 



Inquiry No. 90a7.-Wanted, tb e addre of manu- 
facturers of small wooden articles. 

Inquiry No. 9028. — Wanted, to bny aw blng 
machine that is run by a ooil spring motor. 

Inquiry No. 9029. — Wante , catalogues and- all 
information on machinery for braiding straw in manu- 
facturing straw hats. 

Inquiry No. 9030.— Wante , tbe address of arms 
manufacturing a wood fiber bottle and case made from 
same material. 

Inquiry No. 9032.-Wante .theaddressofparttes 
who supply carriage and wagnn makers with white gum 
w blocks for making huos for ve icle wheels. 

Inquiry No. 9033. Wanted to bny machinery, 
eta, to Install a plant for manufacturing condense 
malted and evaporated milk. 

Inquiry No. 9034.- r manufacturers of 
eiytnat could reduce stumps to kindling wood. 



PATENTS FOR SALE. 

TOR SALE.— Valuable hoop-shaving patent, improves 

?uality and greatly reduces cost of manufacture. For 
urther Information and particulars, inquire Boom 1709, 
11 Pine Street New York. 



Wanted the address of Worth- 



Inquiry No. M922.- 

lngton Boiler Co. 

FOR SALE.-Patent No. 8®,17d Door knob to adjust 
to doors of various thicknesses. No sma 1 screws to 
lo en and drop out. Can be made cheap. Addr s 
J. T. Hendeson, Box 24, Niagara Falls, 

Inquiry No. NfttitS. -Wanted the address of the 
Cohen dot Motor Co. 

FOR SALE.— Self -spinning top. Mechanism all Inside; 
will spin five minutes with one winding. WUl-sell out- 
right or on royalty. U. S. Patent 931,487, August 17, 1909. 
T. N. Reed, Itasca, 

Inquiry No. 8987.— Wanted, the manufacturers of 
the van Winkle Woods & Sons,- and the Weber power 
meters. 

FOR SALE. 

FO R SALE.— Engine lathe, swings 9X in., takes 25 In. 
between centers. Complete with full set change gears 
» cut all size I breads, 8 to 40 in. Price only M3.6Q. Ad- 
dress L. F. Grammes & So Allentown, Pa. 

Inquiry No. 8990. For Information regarding 
shoes not made of leathe hut similar to the same and 
are as durable. 

BOOK AND STATIONERY BUSINESS, established 
20 years, looationin thriving city of 8.000. splendid Held 
and well developed neighborhood, western Minnesota; 
must be sold because of ill-b ealth. Will sacrifice heavy 
discount on actual value. A competence for tbe right 
man, and less than $2,000 swing it. H.L Wbeelock, 
Fergus Falls. Minnesota. 

Inquiry No. 8996.— Wanted addresses of manu- 
facturers of machinery for working orange wood 
cure sticks. 

FOR SALE.— Brand new aeronautic motor. 30 H. P. 
A 4-cyltnder, air-cooled. 2-cyele engine weighing less 
4 lbs. per H. P, Built by one or America's pioneer 
bent motor constructors Will sell cheap to quick pur- 
chaser. Address H. A. Powell, Stratford, Conn. 



HELP WANTED. 



WANTED.— A practical and experienced man, thor- 
oughly conversant with up-to-date stock and cost sys- 
tems for iron and brass manufacturing plants. A per- 
manent and lucrative position for a good man. Apply 
by letter, stating experience and qualifications, to 
" System,-' Box 773, New York. 

Inquiry No. 904*1.— For tbe address of pro ve 

manufacturers of fruit Jars. 

WA NTBD BY NOVEMBER 1st -Superintendent for 
wood working machinery plant, must bave good edu- 
cat on and be well up in e shop practice and 

designing. Applicants will please state age. experience 
and salary required. Hespcler Machinery Co., Limited. 
Hespajer, Ont., Canada. 



PARTNERS WANTED. 

WANTED.— Partner with sufficient capital or a bust, 
ness firm or corporation to manufacture article under 
Patent No. 855.032 on a royalty basis or for sale. Goods 
are staple and cheaply made. Partner, Box 773, N. Y." 

Inquiry No. 901O.— Wanted to buy a Rector 
Help-a-Phone." ■ 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

HAIR GROWS when our Vacuum Cap is used a few 
minutes daily. Sent on 60 days' free trial at our 
No drugs or electricity. Stops falling hair. Cures 
dandruff. Postal brings Illustrated booklet. Modem 
Vacuum Cap Co., 666 Barclay Block, Denver, Colo. 

inquiry No. 9012.— Wanted to bny papiermacbe 
boxes m the shape of water melons, colored to resem- 
ble melons, eta 



LISTS OF MANUFACTURERS. 

COMPLETE LISTS Of manufacturers in all lines sup- 
plied at short notice at moderate rates. Small and 
Special lists compiled to order at various prices. Es- 
timates should la obtained In advance. Address 
Munn & Co., Inc., List Department, Box 773, New York. 

Inquiry No. 9014. or manufacturers of ma- 

gitnery, supplies, , to equip a small plant for the 
anufacture of lrldium-tipped gold nib making for 
fountain pens. 

A LIST OF 1,500 mining and consulting engineers on 
cards. A very valuable list for circularizing, eta 
Price $15.00. Address Munn & Co., Inc., List Depart- 
ment. Box 773, New York. 

. Inquiry No. 9016.— Wanted, machinery necessary 
for an installation of a plant for refining salt by a 
modification of the Bessemer process. 

Inquiry No. 9018.- Wanted, the addressof parties 
manufacturing gold plat for use In cheapf oun- 

tain 

Inquiry No. 9022.— Wanted, to buy a light small 
otor not exceeding three pounds in weight, Including 
everything In going order. 

Inquiry No. 9023.— Wanted, to buy silk machines 
re-reeling, twisting, doubling, to the final process 
of making it Into clothes. 

Inquiry No. 9023. -Wanted, address of 
manufacturers in Germany. 



effli 



Inquiry No. 9026.— Wanted, address of parties 
"io make "invar'' or other- metals having a low oo- 
cient of expansion. 



Plow scrapers, set for forming, J. F. 

Pritcbett 936,353 

Pocket receptacle, L. C. Kerrlck 936,327 

Pool or billiard table, C. E. Turner 936,585 

Portable elevator, G. B. Koontz 936,641 

Posts, device for attaching wires to, Wilcox 

& Burkbolder 936,751 

Power shovel, J. Klesler 936,727 

Power transmission, electrical, C. L. Chis- 

holm 936,304 

Power transmission mechanism, B. F. Mayo 936,338 
Power transmission mechanism, A. Kovacs. 936,458 
Precious metals from ores, extracting, I. 

Eitsee ".' 936,545 

Printing presses, pneumatic folding mech- 
anism for, S. G. Gos 936,711 

Propeller, T. Amnellus 936,508 

Propeller, chain, J. S. Orr 936,349 

Pruning shears, C. W. Washburn , 936,390 

Puller. See Bolt puller. 

Pulley, T. X. Jones 936,778 

Pulley, window shade catch, Hoover & Fries 936,900 

Pulverizer, soil, C. E. Grifiln 936,712 

Pump, R. Conrader 936,605, 936,808 

Pump, power, W. H. Rayner 936,359 

Punch presses, table for, F. Thompson 936,832 

Pyrographical tool, H. M. Holton 936,720 

Rail fop railway tracks, tubular, P. P. 

Cookingham 937,022 

Rail Joint, L. Larson 937,003 

Rail joint and tie plate, A. L. Barns 936,850 

Railway crossing, noiseless, J. E. Reyburn. 936,477 

Railway crossing signal, G. A. Silver 936,372 

Railway semaphore signal, dwarf, H. M. 

Abernethy 936,283 

Railway signal system, wireless, E. R. 

Brodtan 936,406 

Railway swlt operating mechanism, C. W. 

Squires 936,381 

Railway system, motor cycle, J. N. Vande- 

grlft 936,682, 936,683 

Railway tie and rail fastener, J. P. Donovan 936,989 

Railway tie, metal, H. J. Buell 936,519 

Railway tracks, apparatus for depositing 

sand on, W. D. Ross 936,567 

Railway vehicles, means for controlling the 

movement of, J. H. Just 936,325 

Ranges and stoves, towel rack for, F. R. 

Henry 936,890 

Ratchet wrench, J. Knowles ... 936,640 

Razor, safety, E. H. Mclntire 936,654 

Reclining chair, C. A. Warner 936,589 

Reel for coiling flats or other rolled sections, 

F. H. Daniels 936,610 

Regenerative furnace, J. B. McKennan... . 936,930 

Reversing mechanism, F. J. Ball 936,694 

Rifle sight, J. D. Pedersen 936,807 

Ripping device, G. E. Post 936,474 

Kivets, hand tool for extracting, Summers 

& Cooper 936,580 

Rock breaker, C. C. Lane 936,729 

Roof flange, adjustable, H. C. Folger 936,991 

Rotary engine, J. R. Kinney 936,543 

Rotary engine, A. Neumann 936,933 

Rotary motor or pump, J. R. Kinney 936,542 

Rubber, reclaiming devulcaclzed, E. E. A. 

G. Meyer 936,468 

Rubbing post, S. B. Wasson 936,687 

Rule and linotype slug bolder, election 

square, B. D. Dew 936,612 

Runner, detachable, S. Hand 936,449 

Sand, apparatus for cleaning and separation 

of, E. M. Nichols 936,801 

Sash lock, Farmer & Church 936,616 

Saw, band, A. Anderson 936,596 

Saw handle, W. W. Taylor 936,491 

Saw handle, crosscut, J. Kallehner 936,913 

Sawmill, band, H. G. Dlttbenner 936,314 

Sawmill set works and dog, automatic 

power, N. E. Rice . .... 936,944 

Saw setting, tool, L. G. McKam 936,800 

Scale, computing, A. De Vilblss, Jr.,. 936,867 

Scraper, forked or tlned, G. F. Koenlg..... 936,457 

Screen, N. Brandt 936,859 

Screw, set, C. G. Lundholm ; ; 936,549 

Sealing' device, -packing case, C. O. Batch- 

elor 936,289 

Sealing vessels, J. A. Hicks 936, 

drill, Campbell & Howard... 936,408 

Selective ringing k y, C. A. Simpson 936,373 

Service box, H. C. Hubbell 936,538 

Sewage and the like, apparatus for the bac- 
teriological treatment of, G. A. Lucas. 936,464 
Sewing machine, multiple needle, Diehl & 

Hemleb 936,426 

Sewing machine needles, presser foot attach- 
ment for, J. H. Titus 936,386 

Shade adjuster, T. X. Jones 936,779 

Shade bracket, window, A. A. Hazard. ... 937,027 

Shade holder, J. H. Dale 936,421 

Shaft bearing, R. R. Amos 936,286 

Sharpener, razor blade, D. M. Perine 936,935 

Sheet metal handle, E. Ohnstrand.. 936,802 

Sheet metal packages, apparatus for form- 
ing, A. R. McArthur 936,799 

Sheet supporting device, F. k. Fernald 936,878 

Ship cleaning device, W. Martin 936,466 

Ships' plates, making composite, G. C. 

Berg 936,514 

Shoe dauber, J. L. Weir.... 936,590 

Shoe upper fastening device, T. F. Whelan 936,391 

Shooting glasses, C. E. Cook ;,... 936,987 

Shovel. Power .shovel. 

Show case frame, A. A. Havenbill.. ..... .. 936,451 

Shutter bower, O. .....936,992 

Sight locating device, J. P. Saxe 936,570 

Signal and tall light, P. C. Woodnutt 936,394 

Signal mechanism, W. W. Van Horn 936,835 

Sink stop, O. J. Deegan . 936,313 

Slags, deoxidizing, O. Thallner 936,382 

Small arm, automatic, W. J. Whiting 936,967 

Smelter furnace, J. P. Welch... 937,030 

Smelting furnace, ore, W. Kemp.. ..936,781 

Smelting ore, J. P. Welch 937,031 

Socket piece for studding, etc., W. P. Rice. 936,945 

Soldering tool, L. Scbemnttz ; . . . 936,816 

Solenoid switch, rocking, A. T. Marshall . . 936,648 
Sound reproducing machines, automatic nee- 
dle disengaging and stop mechanism for, 

G. A. Oppenhelmer , 936,348 

Sound reproducing machines, record for, B. 

M. Berliner 936,978 

Spark plug 1 , J. O. Anderson 936.507 

Speed changing mechanism, F. C. Brunhouse 936,300 
Speed changing mechanism, W. A. Prlngle. 937,034 
Speed driving mechanism, variable; P. T. 

Kenny 936,326 

Speed mechanism, variable, R. E. Rosewame 936,363 

Spindle, compound, F. Seymour 936,672 

Spool, W. E. Evans 936.526 

Spool, compensating. F. E. Cole 936,306 

Spring, E. H. Wood 836,971 

Spring link, A. B. Day 936.865 

Square, bevel, D. E. Brandt.. 937,020 

Stacker, hay, L. J. Lindsay 936,332 

Stamp affixing machine, Hotchklss & Beach, 

936,636, 936,631 
Stapling machine, E. T. Greenfield 936,996 



above described, powerful electric motors 
are started by throwing in a switch. 
The e motors derive their energy from 
storage batteries c tai ed in the boat, 
and drive' the propellers. The same stor- 
age batteries furnish current for numer- 
ous auxiliary motors used for pumping, 
steering, handling torpedoes, etc. 

The motion of the boat- when under 
way is controlled by two sets o rudders; 
one of these sets, kno n as the vertical 
rudders, directs the boat's course to port 
or starboard just as does the rudder of 
an ordinary ship. In addition, there are 
provided horizontal rudders, which 
serve to co trol the motion of the boat 
in a horizontal plane; that is to say, the 
depth at which she runs is regulated by 
these rudders. For steering in the 
horizontal plane, instruments are pro- 
vided, so that the boat may be navigated 
with the same degree of accuracy as. 
boats on the surface. The first of these 
instruments is known as a periscope. 
This consists of a vertical tube which 
extends from above the surface of the 
water to a few feet within the submarine. 
At the top of the tube is an object glass; 
at the bottom an eye-piece. Two reflect- 
ing mirrors, one at the top, thp other at 
the bottom of the vertical tube, cause 
the image to be transferred from the ob- 
ject glass to the eye-piece. The operator 
can turn the periscope so as to sweep the 
whole horizon. To the writer, who re- 
cently made a, five-hour trip in one of 
our latest boats, the view was as clear 
as though he were at the surface looking 
through an ordinary field glass. Hence 
when running submerged with the top of 
the periscope just out of the water, the 
navigator can see with perfect ease sur- 
rounding objects. If for any reason it 
should be desired to run at a still greater 
depth, compasses are provided by which 
the course may be steered with accuracy. 
For steering, submerged, in the vertical 
plane, instruments are provided which in 
a way take the place of the compass. 
One of these is a large pressure gage, 
which indicates the depth at which the 
boat is running. Another is a form of 
spirit level, which indicates the inclina- 
tion of her axis. By the use of this, the 
man controlling the horizontal rudder is 
able to r n at a perfectly even depth. 
While in the submerged condition, the 
boat is of course amply illuminated by 
electri lights. There are no ports or 
windows in the boat, and so far as sensa- 
tions are concerned, one is unable to de- 
termine whether he is running on the 
surface or submerged. 

The arm of the submarine is the auto- 
mobile torpedo. A number of these may 
be carried. They are discharged through 
torpedo tubes located in the bow of the 
boat. Any modern type of automobile 
torpedo , may be used. In view of the 
fact that the submarine is enabled to 
approach unseen to within a few yards, 
if desired, of the most powerful battle- 
ship, a long-range torpedo is not re- 
quired. , For this reason the weight de- 
voted to motive power in the ordinary 
torpedo may be largely used to increase 
the destructive power, so that the proper 
arm for the submarine would be far more 
powerful and destructive than the ordi- 
nary auto obile torpedo. 

While the project of the submarine is 
comparatively old, it has so happened 
that but few of them have been used In 
real war. Ttte first case on record is that 
of a little hand-power submarine boat 
built by David Bushnell in 1776. Hav- 
ing obtained permission from the Ameri- 
can general in command to use this sub- 
marine against the English fleet an- 
chored north of Staten Island, he in- 
structed a sergeant named Ezra Lee in 
its use. After several attempts, Lee 
made an attack on one of the ships. His 
purpose was to fix a torpedo to her side, 
then, go away and allow it to explode, 
thus destroying the ship. Unfortunately, 
the Bhip was sheathed with copper, and 
he was unable to attach his mine. Lee 
then drifted away from the shi , having 
abandoned his mine, which, after drift- 
ing abwut for an hour, exploded, throw 
(Concluded on page 307.) 



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on wiring for the wireman, foreman, contractor or 
electrician. 

Practical Steam & Hot Water 
Heating and Ventilation 

By ALFRED G. RING 
PRICE $3.00 

*402 Pages. Containing 304 detailed illustra- 
tions. The larger part of them having 
been made from original diagrams* 
specially drawn for the book. 

An Original and Exhaustive Treatise, Prepared for the Use 

oj AU Engaged in the Business of steam. Hot 

Water Heatdng and Ventilation. 

Tbe Standard and 
latest book publish- 
ed. TeliB how to get 
heating contracts, 
how to nstall beat- 
ing and ventilating 
apparatus. Describes 
all of the principal 
systems of steam, 
hot w , vacuum, 
vapor and vacuum- 
vapor beating, to- 
gether with the new 
accelerated systems 
of hot water circula- 
tion, including chap- 
ters on up- to- date 
methods of ventila- 
tion ; fan or blower 
system of heating 
and ventilation; 
rules and data foi 
e imat n radiation 
and cost, aod such 
other tables and in- 
formation as make 
_ A it an indispensable 

work for Heating contractors, Journeymen steam 
fitters. Steam fitters' apprentices, Architects and build 
ers. This work represents the best practice of the 

ftreeerit day and is exhaustive in text,, diagrams and 
[lustrations. Valuable data and tables used for esti- 
mating, installing and testing of steam and hot water 
and ventilating apparatus are given. 




Telephone Construction, In* 

stallation, Wiring, Opera* 

tion and Maintenance. 

By W. H. RADCL.IFFE, E.E., and H. C. 
PUSHING, JR., E.E. 

PRICE, $I.OO 

A Practical Book of ISO Pages and Contain- 
ing 125 Illustrations, Intended for Elec- 
tricians, Wiremen, Engineers, Contractors, 
Architects and Others Interested in the In- 
stallation of Telephone Exchanges in Ac- 
cordance with Standard Practice. 
This hook gives tbe principles of 

construction and o eratlon of both 

the Bell and Independent instru- 
ments; approved methods of in- 
stalling and wiring them; the 

means of prote i them from 

lightning and abnormal cmrentu; 

tbeir connection together for oper- 
ation as series or bridging stations; 

and rules for their inspection and 

maintenance. Line wiring- and the 

wiring and operation of special 

telephone systems are also treated. 
Intricate mathematics are avoid- 

e , and alt apparatus, circuits and 

systems are thoroughly described. 

The appendix contains definitions 

of n ts and terms used in the text. 

Selected wiring tables, which are 

veryhelpful, are also inclu ed. 

MUNN & CO., Inc., Publishers 
361 Broadway, New York City 



r.iTsS'NOjr 



Please mention the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN when writing to advertiser* 



October 23, 1909. 



Scientific American 



307 



Ing up a great volvme of water, and thus 
■warning the English of the- great danger 
they had escaped. 

Another case on record is that of the 
Confederate submarine "David," which, 
during the blockade of Charleston in the 
civil war, was manned by volunteers, and 
by hand power was propelled out to the 
U. S. S. "Housatonic," which she de- 
stroyed by the explosion of a mine in 
contact with her hull. 

During the Spanish- American war. the 
modern submarine had not made its ap- 
pearance. During the Russian-Japanese 
war both sides ordered boats, but the war 
was finished before these vessels became 
available. At present all the leading 
naval powers are acquiring submarines in 
large numbers, so that during the next 
war we may expect to see them figure 
largely in the various operations. 

In the trip in a submarine above re- 
ferred to the Editor was impressed with 
the smoothness and accuracy with which; 
the submarine went through her sub- 
merged evolutions. The movements, 
quick response, etc., of the boat were 
such as to inspire complete confidence in 
her stability and general efficiency. 

There can be no question that the sub- 
marine has at last "come into its own." 
Among the captains of the battleships 
and the line officers in general at Prov- 
incetown, there was noticeable a growing 
respect for these craft, due to the varied 
and accurate work which the flotilla had 
accomplished during the summer maneu- 
vers. There has been a steady but slow 
growth in the speed of the submarine. 
Its control is now perfect, and its radius 
of action is being . rapidly increased. 
Our largest boats have a radius of about 
one thousand miles; and two are under 
construction on the Pacific coast which 
will have a cruising radius of about three 
thousand miles. This means that the 
submarine is taking on full seagoing 
qualities. It must no longer be regarded 
as restricted to seacoast operation. The 
time is not far distant when an admiral 
searching for the enemy upon the high 
seas may include a submarine flotilla in 
his fleet. The profound significance of 
this fact upon strategy and tactics will 
be appreciated by every naval expert. 

♦■■••♦ 

In his study of living beings, the physi- 
ologist has one guiding principle which 
plays but little part in the sciences of 
the chemist and physicist, namely, the 
principle of adaptation. Adaptation or 
purposiveness is the leading character- 
istic of every one of the functions to 
which we devote in our text-books the 
chapters dealing with assimilation, res- 
piration, movement, growth, reproduc- 
tion, and even death itself. Spencer has 
defined life as "the continuous adjust- 
ment of internal relations to external re- 
lations." Every phase of activity in a 
living being is a sequence of some ante- 
cedent change in its environment, and is 
so adapted to this change as to tend to 
its neutralization and so to the sur- 
vival of the organism. This is what is 
meant by adaptation. It will be seen 
that not only does it involve the- teleo- 
logical conception that every normal ac- 
tivity must be for the good of the organ- 
ism, but also that it must apply to all the 
relations of living beings. It must there- 
fore be the guiding principle, not only in 
physiology, with its special pre-occupa- 
tion with the internal relations of the 
parts of the organism, but also in the 
other branches of biology, which treat of 
the relations of the living animal to its 
environment and of the factors which 
determine its survival in the struggle for 
existence. Adaptation therefore must be 
the deciding factor in the origin of spe- 
cies and in the succession of the differ- 
ent forms of life upon this earth. 



The ideal 
underwear for outdoor 
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yachtsman or motorist 
should be without it. 

Special Weights for Fall 



DR. JAEGER'S S. W. S. CO.'S OWN STORES: 

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INVENTORS 



We manufacture all kinds of Machine Novelties. Consult us 
as to developing, perfecting- and marketing your patents. 

Machine accessories and novelties mfg. co. 
providence, r. i. 



CONSULTING ENGINEER. 

ERNEST L. RANSOME 

Reinforced Concrete 
11 Broadway, New York 



SOUTHERN 8TAMPING ft MFG. CO. 

Manufacturers of special and patented articles. 
K. 8., Nashville. Term. 



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aifaAflillaiS Corliss Engine*, Brewers 
ttlera" Machinery. T.'HE VILTEB 
CO., 899 Clinton 8t„ Milwaukee. Wis 



and 

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MnilFI Q * EXPERIMENTAL WORK. 

IIIUULLO Inventions developed. Special Machinery. 
E. V. BAILLARO CO.. 24 Frankfort Street. New York. 



DTTDD1TD Expert Manufacturers 

M\ \J O O Caf I\. Fine Jobbing Work 

PARKER, STEARNS & CO.. 288-290 Sheffield Av., B'klyn, N. Y. 



MODELS * EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

Anything from a Watch to an Automobile 

Chas. E. Dressier & Co., Metropolitan Bldg., 1 Madison Ate* New York 



DIE MODELS SPECIAL 
WORK tOOLS MACHINERY 

NAT10NA! DAMPING AND ELECTRIC WORKS 

Z'lk-SiO 5, Jefferson Street, Chicago. III. 



HOEFT «&. COMPANY 

Die Makers, Hodel Maker., Machinery Builder., Pnneh Pre.se., 
Light and Henry Stamping.. 120 Michijran St.. Chicago, 111., U.S.A. 



New York Model and Experimental Works 

INVENTIONS DEVELOPED. SPECIAL MACHINERY 
442 East 166th Street New York, N. Y. 



fY.?ra 



._ SPECIAL! 
H. CABSTENS MF6. CO., 85-91 W, Lake St., Chicago, 



Are you interested in Patents, Model or Experimental 
-work? Our booklet entitled 

WHAT WE DO-HOW WE DO IT 

will be sent to you on request. 

KNICKERBOCKER MACHINE WORKS, Inc., 

8-10-12 Joiiea (Street, New York 



■ 1111: Bi:sT EllUII'i'bl) SIKH' 
For Mt'chiinUal and Klcctrical Manufacturing 

Special Machinery, Jigs, Tools, 
Repairs, Experimental Devices 



THE ROWI.ANn TELEGRAPHIC COMPANY. ESalti 



DRYING MACHINES 



For Orannlar Materials 

S. K. WORRELL 
Hannibal, Mo., IT. 8. A. 



NOVELTIES ft PATENTED ARTICLES 

"UNUFACTURED BY CONTRACT. PUNCHING DIES. SPEC'AL MACHINERY 
KONIGSLOW STAMPING* TOOL WORKS. CLEVELAND. 



In consequence of the part played by 
the gas-lighting equipments of the trains 
involved in some recent accidents, states 
a contemporary, the Prussian railway au- 
thorities have decided to convert all their 
sleeping cars now fitted for gas lighting 
(some 170 cars) for electric lighting. 



SPARK COILS 

Their Construction Simply Explained 

Scientific American Supplement 

160 describes the making of a lj^-inch spark 
coil and condenser. 

Scientific American Supplement 
1514 tells you bow to make a coil for gas- 
engine ignition. 

Scientific American Supplement 
IS 22 explains fully the construction of a 
jump-spark coil and condenser for gas-engine 
ignition. 

Scientific American Supplement 
1124 describes the construction of a 6-inch 
spark coil. 

Scientific American Supplement 
1087 gives a full account of the making of 
an alternating current coil giving a 5-inch 
spark. 

Scientific American Supplement 
1527 describes a 4-inch spark coil and con- 
denser. 

Scientific American Supplement 
1 402 gives data for the construction of coils 
of a definite length of spark. 

The above-mentioned set of seven papers 
, will be supplied for 70 cents. 
Any single copy will be mailed for 10 cts. 

MVNN «t CO.. Inc. Publishers 
361 Broadway New York 



Steam trap, W. Wanstall 9S6,9«3 

Steamer, egg, B. Wells 936,066 

Steel castings, manufacture of, J. K. Grif- 
fith 936,623 

Sterilization vessel, G. Van Byck 936,767 

Stitching machine, book. V. Kugler 936.643 

Stock and die, J. B. Dundore 936,311 

Stone sawing machine, Wallner & Owens. 936,748 

Stove, portable, W. B. Seeley 936,482 

Stovepipe cutter, O. H. Hanshue 936,450 

Strainer, G. F. Grimm 936,997 

Strap seal, Baruch & Dessauer 936,852 

Sweeper, vacuum, Matchette & Monkos.... 936,465 

Swing, G. W. Schilling 936,818 

Switch, C. Carson 936,601 

Switch points, mechanism for rolling, W. D. 

Bynon 936,436 

Switch stand, B. E. Scott 936.819 

Switching device, O. Rennert 936,666 

Tag and buckle, combined, E. G. Hitt 936,896 

Talking machine, E. L. Gibson 936,531 

Tape scoring apparatus, C. Thibodeau 936,383 

Tapping means, liquor, J. P. Terry 936,877 

Target practice apparatus, H. H. Gummlngs, 

936.418, 936.419 

Taximeter, O. H. Pearson 936,559 

Telegraph, printing, J. C. Barcklay. 936,849, 937.032 

Telegraphone, H. E. Stuart 936,490 

Telephone, H. Bccles 936,432 

Telephone system, P. O. TJnger 936,495 

Telephone trunking system, O. A. Simpson 936,374 

Telescope, terrestrial, G. A. H. Kellner 936,541 

Thimble, sewing, C. B. lies 936,902 

Thread finishing machine, silk, B. Pohl 936,473 

Ticket and holder for same, continuous rail- 
way, Proctor & Blkin 936,354 

Ticket, railway or other, A. Moyon 936,925 

Tie plates, making rolled metal, W. L. De 

Remer 936,423 

Tile making machine, W. J. McCracken 936,928 

Time recorder, J. Alsenz 936,691 

Tire, W. B. Cornell 936,416 

Tire, H. L. Walbridge 936,837 

Tire,- D. Moriarty 936,924 

Tire setting machine, D. E. Evans 936,435 

Toaster, electric. W. S. Andrews 936,597 

Toilet closet, R. A. Brooks 936,516 

Tongs, A. Blng 936,980 

Tongs, lifting, J. Parrett 937,028 

Tongs, pipe, B. M. Hedlund 936,319 

Tool, finishing, J. J. Barth 936,695 

Tool, pressure driven reciprocating, A. 

Palmros 937,009 

Tooth, artificial, P. Rose 936.361 

Tooth, artificial, J. W. Ivory 936.903 

Toy, automatic, C. W. Cheney 936,602 

Toy cannon, C. L. Wood 936.689 

Track laying apparatus, E. C. Spandau 936.679 

Train controlling mechanism, O. Gibson 936,443 

Train manipulation, system and device for 

Indicating, L. B. Stillwell 936,488 

Trains, resetting mechanism for recording, 

O. White 936,591 

Transfer press, Sloane & Owsley 936,954 

Transportation system, C. Worthington 936,395 

Transportation, system of river. Lane & 

Mathews 936.336 

Trap, J. Pozsony 936.808 

Trap door lift, A. G. Boggess 936,294 

Trolley, G. G. Miller 936,341 

Trolley clip, J. C. Mlchaelson 936.340 

Trousers supporter, S. Levin 936,787 

Truck, J. H. Smith 936.825 

Truck frame, A. L. Hastings 936,626 

Tube cleaning apparatus, J. G. Frerichs 936,620 

Tube filling and tamping machine, T. A. 

Edison 936,433 

Tunnel attachment, J. A. Home 936,628, 936,629 

Turbine for driving boiler tube cleaners, 

H. T. Weinland et al 936,498 

Turbine, steam, R. A. McKee 937.006 

Turn table, J. E. Beattie 936.854 

Twisting machine, T. Nunn 936,346 

Tjpe setting and distributing machine, A. 

G. Halfpenny 936,776 

Typewriter cabinet, J. D. Cleaton 936,894 

Typewriter printing mechanism, E. W. 

Ohlig 939,833 

Typewriter ribbon feeding mechanism, R. W. 

Dhlig 936,834 

Type writing machine, J. Felbel 936,917 

Valve, air control steam, J. A. Hecks. . . . 939,535 

Valve, gate, B. D. Jefferson 939,454 

Valve, steam engine, J. O. Glenn 939,773 

Vehicle seat, J. Benson 939,513 

Vehicle top, collapsible, O. J. Tucker 939.990 

Vehicle top door, P. B. Heylmann 939,892 

Vehicle wheel, V. B. Van Cantfort 939,587 

Vehicle wheel, J. H. Scott 939,820 

Vehicles uphill, device for assisting, S. H. 

Stevens 939,828 

Vending machine, M. H. Johnston 939,729 

Vending machine, liquid, Sage & Mitchell.. 939,395 
Ventilator. See Car ventilator. 

Violin, J. B. L. Winecoff 939,505 

Violin tailpiece, N. C. Hale 939,924 

Wagon, dumping, W. S. Livengood 939,730 

Wagon seat riser, R. N. Collins 939,414 

Wall bracket, W. C. Morrill 936,552 

Wall of plastic material, such as conerf-te, 

etc., retaining or quay, G. P. Wood.. 936,843 

Wall plug, H. I. Jeffers 936,322 

War machine, J. Bouscal 936,296 

Wardrobe for bedsteads, H. B. Williams 936,969 

Washboiler, I. Mozley 936,928 

Washer, gasket, IL Mueller 938,554 

Washing machine, H. S. Judd 936,634 

Washing machine, H. Kraut 936,842 

Washing machine, J. J. Fuchs, Jr 936,770 

Watchmakers' lathes, tool rest for, P. W. 

Derbyshire 936,422 

Water, Attachment for regulating and indi- 
cating the temperature of running, C. 

E. & W. H. Krueger 936,548 

Water closet, H. W. Ward ,. ... 939,388 

Water closet, J. C. Duner 936,706 

Walter closet coupling, H. S. Maddock "936,919 

Water closet, ventilated, J. K. Pennington. . 936,561 

Water purifier, electric, M. R. Prei 939,993 

Water tube boiler, R. Hutchison 936,723 

Wedge blocks and doyle pins, apparatus for 

cutting, S. Smith 936,744 

Weigher, automatic grain, A. G. Yerk 936,593 

Weighing apparatus, automatic, Vf. E. Nick- 

erson , 936,557 

Weighing machine, W. W. Rosenfleld 936,392 

Weighing machine, automatic, C. A. Doug- 
lass, et al 936,613 

Weighing machine for liquids, hydraulic, 

A. Rak 936,358 

Well cleaning out device, T. B. Hyland 936,901 

Wheel, P. B. Felts 936,708 

Wheel, A. C. Gillam 936,994 

Wheel chock, G. N. Crawford 936,417 

Wheelbarrow, L. Wigh 936,968 

Wickerwork, B. M. Calef 936,520 

Wind screen, G. H. Beaton 936,853 

Windmill mechanism, I. C. Rust 936,598 

Window screen, A. B. Hill 939,895 

Window tent, J. G. Allen; 939,849 

Wire basket. Porter & Jenkins 939,736 

Wire crimping machine, meshed, A. Sbuman 939,973 
Wire fabric making device, F. H. Hamblin 939,025 

Wire hanger, F. L. Sessions 939,370 

Wire netting stretcher, H. J. Byrnes 939,900 

Wire stret-her, E. A. & C. W. Wheeler 939,749 

Wood, preserving, J. M. Nelson, Jr 937,008 

Woolen, B. Leurent 939,491 




A Failure at Fifty 

Out of a job at fifty — is the fate of the 
untrained man. 

Business requires not only natural 
ability but special training. 

The Trained Man Can Defy Old .Age 

The American School of Correspondence can 
Htyou for congenial, well-paid positions in your 
early years, and make your services valuable in 
your. old age. Training only can compensate for 
the energy of youth. 

For thirteen years the School's Engineering 
Courses have set the standard for thoroughness 
and practicalness in correspondence instruction. 
The School has trained thousands of men for 
the technical professions, or has advanced them 
to higher positions. To-day these courses repre- 
sent the highest development of correspondence 
teaching. 

The Courses in Commerce. Account- 
ancy and Business Administration 

set the same high standard in the commercial 
world. They prepare for the best-paid business 
positions; they are prepared by practical busi- 
ness men who have "made good" by practicing 
what they teach ; they are planned to meet the 
needs of both the young man who is just starting 
in, and the older man who has almost "arrived." 
Get your training now, while you have the 
time and energy for study. Mail the coupon 
to-day. 

American School of Correspondence 

CHICAGO, V. S. A. 



FREE INFORMATION COUPON 

American School of Correspondence: 

Please send me your Bulletin and advise me bow I • 
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. . . Draftunan 
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NAME 

ADDRESS 

OCCUPATION 

Scientific American -10-23-09 



Learn Watchmaking 

We teach it .thoroughly in ua many months as it 
formerly took years. Does away with tedious appren- 
ticeship. Money earned while studying. Positiws se- 
cured. Easy terms. Send for catalog. 

ST. LOTJI8 WATCHMAKING SCHOOL. St. Louis, Mo. 



PLY P A P E E S. — FORM ULAS FOR 

Sticky Fly Papers are contained in Scientific Ameri- 
can supplement Nbs. 1057 and 13544. Each issue 
contains several recipes. Price 10 cents each, from 
this office, and from all newsdealers. 



Models, Novelties and Patented Articles 

Manufactured by contract. Punching Dies and Drawiag Wn£ 
NEW YORK FLATIBON CO. Belle Meat, jr. J. 




TV1"» TTalHICarqt, circulars, book, news- 

JLrXUJ.ll X Paper. Press$5.I,arKcrWa Bo- 

—■>■ ■; —,---- tary 100. Save Money. Print 

• jfOlll* f "? others, big profit. All easy, 

3C w **" ' rules sent. Write factory lor 

flTXm P re8s catalog,! YPE, paper, &*. 

W W MM TUB PRESS CO., Herlden, fc^T 



, TheBaM Transmission 'H 
|P* Automobiles &MotorBoats"|j;N- 



NEW YORK GEAR WORKS. 



Remoh Diamond 



A printed copy of the specification and drawing 
of any patent in the foregoing list, or any patent 
in print issued since 1863, will be furnished from 
this office for 10 cents, provided the name and 
number of the patent desired and the date be 
given. Address Munn & Co., Inc., 361 Broadway, 
New York. 

Canadian patents may now be obtained by the In- 
ventors for any of the inventions named in the fore- 
going list. For terms and further particulars 
address Munn & Co., Inc., 361 Broadway, New 
York. 



v Looks like a diamond— ■» 

like a diamond— 'brilliancy gnaran- 
teed forever— stands filing like a 
diamond— stands heat like a dla- 
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■mountings. l-20th the cost of dia- 
monds. A marvelously reconstructed gem — sent on 
approval. Write for our catalog De Luxe, it'a free. 
Remoh Jewelry Co., 453 N. Broadway, SCLoois 



HARDERF0LD 

HYGIENIC 

UNDERWEAR 

Inter-Air-Space System 

Is two-fold throughout, affording 
protection against the vicissitudes 
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Invalids Athletes 

Professional Men 
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Over 1.100 Physicians 

nave united fn testifying to the san- 
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system of tmderclotLlnfr. 

BARDERFOLD FABRIC CO. 
163 River Street, TR0Y.N.Y. 

Send for Catalogue 




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3o8 



Scientific American 



October 23, 1909. 



HolsmanAutomobfles 



High Wheels Travel atl Roads, 
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Oldest and largest makers of high-wheeled 
automobiles in the world. World's record 
for Hill-climbing and Reliability con- 
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Roadlblllty and Reliability 
are the reasons for high wheels and 
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popular, intensely practicable vehi- 
cles and their low cost. 
HOLSMAN AVJTOXOJIILE CO. 
Suite 264 llonadiiock iilk Chicago 




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COLD GALVANIZING. 

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SftHPLES.NDlNFORMATiON o» APPLICATION. 



NICKEL 

AND 

Electro-Plating 

Apparatus sua Material 

THB 

Hanson & VanWinkle 

Co., 

Newark, N. J. 

28 & 30 S. Canal St. 
Cbicaero. 




LEARN TO BE A WATCHMAKER 




Bradley Polytechnic Institute 

Horological Department 

Peoria, Illinois 

Formerly Persons Horoio=:ical Inst, 

Largest ami Best VYitteli School 

iu America 
We teach Watch Work, Jewelry, 
Engraving, Clock Work, Optics- 
Tuition reasonable. Board and 
rooms near schoel at moderate rates. 
Send for Catalog of Information. 




Every Desirable Feature is 
Found in 

Crescent Wood Working Machinery 

Band Saws Swing Saws 

Saw Tables Disk Grinders 

Jointers Planers 

Shapers Planer and Matcher 

Borers Band Saw Blades 

Send for catalog. It's free. 

THE CRESCENT MACHINE CO. 
230 Main St, Leetonia, Ohio, II. S. A. 




The Holtzer-Cabot 
Jump Spark Magneto 

Double Brush Rigging, Heavy 
Shaft, Automatic Lubri- 
cation, Efficient, Simple 
and Rugged. 

THE HOLTZER-CABOT 
ELECTRIC CO. 

Boston (It rook line), Mass. 
Chicago, III. 




TAPES AND RULES 

ARE THE BEST. 

for sale everywhere. Send for 
Catalog No. 18. 

LVFKIN RULE CO. 

Saginaw, Mich.. U. S. A. 

New York and London. 



I MOUSE POWER COMPLETE 
T 1,2 & 3 Cylinders, 3 la 30 H. P. 
I Price— $88 and upwards. Write for color catalog today— with 
beautiful color print of yacht Grayling — fastest motor boatof 
igth and beam in the world — most complete marine 
I c atah.gr ever published. Gray Motor Co. 11 LeibSt , Detroit, Mich. 



MEN WANTED 



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1200 men 
average 

Selling "WEAR- EVER" Aluminum 
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Half of these men had no previous experience. 
Work made pleasant by our 175 yaj^e Irstruc- 
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The Aluminum Cooking Utensil Co., Desk 25, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Opportunity knocks, but don^t expect the door to be kicked in. 



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W Does Your Granite Dtsh 
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1ENDETS 



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Drawing, Copying and Ink Pencils 

are the finest production of a house that has been manufacturing the highest grade 
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Sample worth double the money will be sent you on receipt of 10c. 



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49 Dickerson Street, Newark, New Jersey 




Polar Water Stills] 

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83 E. Jackson Boulevard 
CHICAGO 



LEE 

OUT- , 

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fit* Any 



We want to show you how thoroughly prac- 
tical it is to receive all the benefits of out-of- 
Idoor sleeping— with the face, only, coming in 
(contact with the crisp, out-door air — enjoying 
lthe comforts of a warm room, protected from 
| drafts, storms, colds and insects — by using a 

Walsh Window Tent 

Has an awning to protect sleeper— no nails or 
screws to mar the woodwork— can he instantly 
adjusted to any window. Write today for free 
booklet, " What Fresh Air Will Do," and full 
particulars of our 30-day Ir*e trial offer. 

Recommended by Eminent Physicians Everywhere. 

Cabinet Mfg. Co., 305 Maine St., Qulncy, III. 

fftanufaeturersot SuperiorCahinets lorTurklshandVaporBaths 



THE PERFECT PROTRACTOR 

Our No. 19 is graduated in degrees from to 90 both 
ways. Six inch blade. Is set 
firmly by means of our patent 
lock joint. Back «f tool is flat. 
Accurate and convenient for 
setting bevels or transferring 
angles. Satisfactory in every 
particular. Price !* I;5(>. 
Send for 232 page catalog No. 18-B. 
THE L. 8. STARKETT CO., Athol, Mass., U. S. A. 






They mend all leaks in al I utensils — tin 

brass.eopper.graniteware.hot water bags 

etc. No solder, cement or rivet. Anyone 

can use them; fit any surface; two million 

in use. Send for sample pkg. 10c. Complete 

pfcg. assorted sizes, 26c postpaid. Agents wanted. 

Collette Mfg. Co., Box 192 Amsterdam, N, Y. 




$60 



GOES LIKE SIXTV 

SELLS LIKE SIXTY 
SELLS FOR SIXTV 

GILSON 

GASOLENE 

ENGINE 

For Pumping, Cream 

^Separators, Cnurns, Wash Ma- 

^ch ines, etc. FEEE TEIAL 

4 *|i^| 2EB. Askfor catalog all sizes 

GILSON MFG. CO. 305 fa* St. Port Washineton, Wis. 




CROBET 

Swiss Files 

_._ and other tools shown 

* in "The Tool-Monger," 

Sent free if you mention this paper when writing. 
MONTGOMERY & CO., 109 Fulton Street, New York City 



WE WILL MAKE 3SS 

manufacture of any metal novelty. Automatic ma- 
chinery, tools, dies and expert work our specialty 
AUTOMATIC HOOK & EYE CO., Hoboken. N. J. 



Do You Gamble ? 

Some people spend their money and energy housing a splendid 
crop of grain, cotton or tobacco, and then gamble with Providence on 
its safety until sold. Do you ? 

Other people put the savings of years into a home and then rely 
on their luck to avoid the thousand and one chances of fire. Do you? 

Still other people invest their entire assets in a store or a factory, 
and then wholly or in part insure themselves, thinking that they can 
carry the risk as well as the insurance company. Do you ? 

The average man has most of his property in one place. To carry 
his own insurance is to depend upon chance, i. e. : to gamble, with ruin 
as the penalty for losing. The business of the insurance company is 
founded on the law of averages. It can be safely conducted, but only 
when its stability is based on the experience of tens of thousands of 
risks widely distributed over a continental area. 

The Hartford Fire Insurance Company offers unsurpassed indem- 
nity. Its business Is distributed among more than fifteen thousand 
cities, towns and villages throughout the United States and Canada. 
During 99 years it has paid every just claim — more than $125,000,000 
in all. Its policies are safeguarded by ample resources and an honor- 
able record. 

The "Hartford" insures all classes of property. It also serves property 

owners by telling them how to guard 
against the dangers of fire. It has 
published a book on the subject, 
" Fire Prevention and Fire Insurance," 
with separate chapters for household- 
ers, merchants and manufacturers that will be 
sent free to those who apply for it. 

Insure in the " Hartford " 

To secure a " Hartford" Policy or the 
book referred to above, apply to the 

Hartford Fire Insurance Company 




Capital $2,000,000.00 

' Reserve for all Liabilities, 13,171,224.23 

Surplus for Policy-holders . 7,061,592.38 
1 Total Assets of . . . $20,232,816.61 



HARTFORD, CONN. 

Agents Everywhere 



The Engine — Not The 
Operator 



All classes of 
operators get sat- 
isfactory service 
out of 




lO'ft s^--JKmwtmkWk\ .mm. Jm y* r &<\' 



H 
^ 



,-^eJ 



I. H. C. 



Gasoline 
Engines 



Not only efficient, but simple, sure, economical. 
Built on right lines for full power service. 

Styles of engines adapted to all uses, Vertical, 
Horizontal (Portable and Stationary) and Traction, 
Air-cooled, Water-cooled, 1 to 25 dorse power. For 
catalog call on local agents or address 

INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER CO. OF AMERICA 

(Incorporated) 

15 Harvester Bldg.. Chicago, U. S. A. 



Mclntyre Guaranteed 
Sure- 
Service 

Always-Ready 



Model H 

12-H.-P. 

$476 




Why Not For Your 



tor li uetties snil wagons 

ave proved their positive 

worth as pleasure 

ehirles and 

i o n e y-sAving 

work vehicles 

r thousands 

In every part 

of the civilized 

world. 




Motor Vehicles 

never fall— never (ret tired— «on t no more than a good horse and buggy 
— coat far less to keep — do more work In leee time than three horsei. 
Take jou ftujwbere and hack again over any kind of roade, io all 
kinds of weather. Run 30 . _•• 

mileaonooegallonof j — — M Model 50fi, 

gasoline. Slmple.dur- fl^ /£-? |gr 1 2-H .-P. *4 5 

able, guar 
mechanic. 
struotlon. Solid 
tires — do tire 
troubles or re- 
pair expense. 
For Free Cat- 
alog No. 68 address 

nearest office. w< H Me | n(yPB Co., Auburn, Indiana 

256 Broadway, New York; 1730 Grand Avt., Kansas City; 418 Third 

Ave, i^o., Minneapolis; Tudhope Mclntyre Co. , Orellea, Can. 




The new *'I-T" 

is a high-grade, 7 -jewel 
watch built in a new factory 
by the makers of the Dollai Watch. 

lii^rsdrlkntajri 

The Best 7 -Jewel Watch "^ 



Though of entirely different construc- 
tion from the Dollar Ingersol), it is Just 
as remarkable a value. It is the on /y 
popular-priced watch having a bridge- 
model movement. Has every scientific 
feature of the most expensive watches. 
Extremely accurate, handsome and 
will wear 20 years. Positively 
guaranteed. 
jFin SoIid$Tin 10-yr. 4f|in 20-yr. 

J) nickel |goId-filled*JJgold-fiIlc^ 
case case case 

Sold by responsible jewelers 
everywhere or prepaid by us. In- 
sist on seeing it before buying. 
See large magazine advertise- 
ments or send for booklet "E." 

Robt. H. I ngersoll & Bro. 
35. Frankel Building, 
New York 



k*"i 



BURNS AIR m^Iy. 



One 'BEST' Light 




Gives more Light than 

Six Electric Lights, or Ten 

Kerosene Lamps or One 

Hundred Candles, and 

Costs lessthan 

Kerosene. 

Burm Wo Air Wo Gas 

Air is free. The Lamp makes all 
the pus needed. 

A beautiful, pure white, steady, 

pafo light. No Wick! NoUrease! 

Stt Smoke I No Odor ! Hang or Set 

it anywhere. Over 1W Styles. 

AGENTS WANTED 

THE BEST LIGHT CO., 

87 E. GthSt., Canton, Ohio. 



We want every man | 
in professional or busi- 
ness life to give one trial 
to the 

FALCON 
ALUMINOID PEN 

It saves a thousand annoyances — thought in- 
terrupted, ideas sidetracked, all from the catch 
and splutter of a corroded pen. 
Falcon Aluminoid is a new pen that can't rust, 
but stays smooth, resilient and responsive to 1 
your slightest wish. 

Samples sent for 2c. stamp. 

A. L. SALOMON & CO. 
343 Broadway, New York 

nS^La Sold by Stationers 




||IBRIC4TISVo n r ° 

ANYTHING •Ifffi 1 

15- ill S.CLIMTON ST. 

cubes iv a co WiSft-rPUSA 



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